Pavlik Morozov - a hero or a Judas?

The name of Pavlik Morozov has recently been associated with betrayal, although during the Soviet era it was a symbol of the fight against injustice, which several generations of pioneers were equal to. An unknown boy from the small village of Gerasimovka, Sverdlovsk region, lost in the wilderness, he denounced his father and was subsequently killed in the forest along with his younger brother Fyodor.

Pavlik Morozov was born on November 14, 1918 in the village of Gerasimovka, Turin district, Tobolsk province. Pavlik's father, Trofim Sergeevich Morozov, until 1931 was the chairman of the Gerasimov village council. According to the memoirs of the Gerasimovites, shortly after taking this position, Trofim Morozov began to use it for selfish purposes, which is mentioned in detail in the criminal case initiated against him later. According to the testimony of witnesses, Trofim began to appropriate things confiscated from the dispossessed. In addition, he speculated on certificates issued to special settlers.

Soon, Pavel's father left his family (a wife with four children) and began to cohabit with a woman who lived next door - Antonina Amosova. According to the recollections of the teacher Pavel, his father regularly drank and beat his wife and children both before and after leaving the family. Pavlik's grandfather also hated his daughter-in-law because she did not want to live with him on the same farm, but insisted on sharing. According to Alexei (brother Pavel), the father "loved only himself and vodka, " he did not spare his wife and sons, let alone foreign immigrants, from whom "he tore three skins for letterheads with seals." The parents of the father also treated the family abandoned by the father to the mercy of fate: “Grandfather and grandmother were also strangers to us for a long time. They never gave me anything, did not greet me. Grandfather did not let his grandson, Danilka, go to school, we only heard: You will manage without a diploma, you will be the owner, and Tatyana's puppies are farm laborers.

After several decades, it is already difficult to understand whether this is a story about a boy who sacrificed his life in the fight against the "kulaks" who sheltered bread from the village poor, or simply the revenge of a semi-literate teenager to his father for an abandoned family. But the fact remains - Pavel "handed over" his father to the communists with giblets.

In 1931, Morozov senior was sentenced to 10 years for the fact that "being the chairman of the village council, he was friends with the kulaks, sheltered their farms from taxation, and upon leaving the village council, he facilitated the escape of special settlers by selling documents." He was charged with issuing fake certificates to the dispossessed of their belonging to the Gerasimov village council, which gave them the opportunity to leave the place of exile. Trofim Morozov, being imprisoned, participated in the construction of the White Sea-Baltic Canal and, having worked for three years, returned home with an order for shock work, and then settled in Tyumen.

On September 2, 1932, Pavel and Fyodor went to the forest, suggesting to spend the night there (in the absence of their mother, who had gone to Tavda to sell the calf) and never returned, and on September 6 their corpses were found. Their own grandfather Sergei (Trofim Morozov's father) and 19-year-old cousin Danila, as well as grandmother Ksenia (as an accomplice) and Pavel's godfather, Arseny Kulukanov, who was his uncle (as a village "Kulak" - as the initiator and organizer of the murder). After the trial, Arseny Kulukanov and Danila Morozov were shot, eighty-year-old Sergei and Ksenia Morozov died in prison. Another uncle of Pavlik, Arseny Silin, was also accused of complicity in the murder, but during the trial he was acquitted.

Tatyana Morozova lost almost all of her children. Grisha - died in infancy; Fedor - killed at the age of 8, together with Pavel; Roman - fought against the Nazis, returned from the front as an invalid, died young; Alexei suffered greatly from the perestroika campaign of persecution of Pavlik and in recent years he lived in the Crimea, having escaped from his native places.

In the spring of 1999, co-chairman of the Kurgan Memorial Society Innokenty Khlebnikov, on behalf of Arseny Kulukanov's daughter Matryona Shatrakova, sent a petition to the Prosecutor General's Office to review the decision of the Ural Regional Court, which sentenced the teenager's relatives to death. The Russian Prosecutor General's Office rejected the request.

This story still has a lot of innuendo and blank spots. Who Pavlik Morozov was will remain a mystery, since each coin has two sides, and whether he was right or wrong depends on the point of view. In general, one wise book says: "Do not judge and do not be judged."