As you know, the very first computer networks began to be created back in the 1960s. on the basis of the then cable lines and radio transmission channels, the military and government organizations of the United States. The Internet, to which we are all so accustomed today, did not yet exist, and its “prototype” was the ARPAnet network.
In the 1970s, when the ARPAnet already numbered as many as 15 nodes, e-mail appeared: in 1971 the corresponding protocol was developed, the @ symbol became an integral part of the e-mail address, and in 1972, Ray Tomlinson created the first mail client that came with the TENEX operating system.
The Internet was "born" in 1983, when the single TCP / IP protocol was adopted on January 1. But so far it was only about the creation of a global information transmission network. As for the WWW service, which today many people identify with the Internet in general, before its appearance there was still another 8 years to wait.
The very first site in the world (and in the history of mankind!) Was created in May 1990 by Timothy John Bernes-Lee, an employee of the European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN) (who had developed the concept of the HTTP protocol and the system of uniform resource URLs a year earlier) and his colleague Robert Kayo. This site had the domain name info.cern.ch. This URL still exists, but today there is a "memorial" web page dedicated to the history of the "birth" of the WWW service. A copy of the very first site can be found at:
The interface of the very first site, as you can see, is very simple. The very first browser (also, by the way, created by Bernes-Lee) did not yet know how to work with computer graphics (and even more so with multimedia), so the site was purely text-based. Some words in this text ended with serial numbers written in square brackets: these were hyperlinks. To navigate through them, it was required to enter the corresponding numbers from the keyboard - from 1 to 45 (this is how many links there were on this very first web page). And at the very bottom there was a line with a prompt and a command line (as in MS-DOS); it was always present on the screen, and the rest of the lines — the actual web document — could be scrolled up and down on the screen.
The server on which this site was hosted was a NeXT computer with the following hardware characteristics (these are reference characteristics of similar NeXT computers; the exact parameters of the very first web server, unfortunately, have not been preserved):
• Processor - Motorola 68030 (32-bit, 24 MHz);
• RAM - from 8 to 64 MB ();
• hard disk - 330 or 660 MB;
• magneto-optical disk - 256 MB;
• network adapter - 10Base-2 Ethernet.
However, Timothy Bernes-Lee originally developed the HTTP protocol and HTML language, taking into account the ability to display graphics, format text and highlight links directly in it, which are just a click of the mouse. Even the playback of sound and video via hyperlinks was already incorporated into these theoretical developments from the very beginning. However, the very first graphical Mosaic browser appeared only in 1993, when there were already more than 100 sites on the World Wide Web.