The body of the Sun is a giant incandescent ball made up mostly of hydrogen and helium. The temperature inside our star reaches 20 million degrees. A grain of solar matter with such a temperature, hitting the Earth, would burn everything around for hundreds of kilometers.
The solar shell is divided into zones. The lower layer, the photosphere - "film", 200 kilometers thick, has a temperature of six thousand degrees Celsius. Above the photosphere is the chromosphere - a layer of gases 15 thousand kilometers long. Beyond its borders begins the solar "corona", the thickness of which is more than 10 million kilometers. Interestingly, as the distance from the photosphere to the chromosphere increases, the temperature increases.
Astronomers of all ages believed that prominences (luminous formations at the edge of the solar disk, giant explosions of matter) move upward from the photosphere. However, recently accelerated photography has noted an interesting fact: most often the prominences descend from top to bottom.
The sun emits energy through intra-atomic fusion (the transition of hydrogen to heavier helium). At the same time, it loses mass. It is estimated that the Sun "loses weight" every second by 4 million tons, or 360 billion tons per day. Scientists have found that the sun is more than half of hydrogen, and this supply will last for tens of billions of years.
The diameter of the Sun is 109 times the diameter of the Earth, the surface is 12 thousand times larger than the Earth's, and the volume is one million three hundred thousand volumes of our planet. The ratio of the volumes of the Sun and the Earth is about the same as a heap of nine buckets of wheat and one grain.
The sun rotates around its axis, makes one revolution in 27 days, but its rotational motion has some difficult to explain features. Different parts of the sun rotate at different speeds. So, the areas located near the poles rotate at the rate of one revolution for about 30 days, and those located near the equator - about 25 days.
The sun sends out large amounts of X-rays to the earth. Strengthening or weakening, this flow affects the earth's atmosphere and leads to the fact that even artificial satellites and rockets, rushing rapidly in orbit, suddenly move away for a while or approach the Earth.