Many residents of our country are sure: houses - "Khrushchevs" were invented in the Soviet Union, in order to provide the townspeople with cheap, albeit not the most comfortable, housing. This is not so - the first high-rise buildings of this type were built in the twenties of the last century in Amsterdam.
And in the USSR, this idea was picked up already in the fifties, during the reign of Nikita Sergeevich Khrushchev, hence the name of the houses. Although, plans to provide Soviet citizens with affordable housing were developed back in the late forties, during the era of Stalin.
The massive construction of "Khrushchevkas" began in the area of the village of Cheryomushki near Moscow. Here in the fifties and sixties a whole district grew up, built up with typical twin houses.
Khrushchevkas were viewed as temporary housing, and were designed for 25 years. After that, according to Nikita Sergeevich, communism will come to the country, and the inhabitants of the country will be provided with more comfortable housing. But, many "Khrushchevs" have survived safely to this day. Experts even argue that with timely overhaul of the building, it is quite capable of standing for more than 100 years.
A characteristic feature of "Khrushchev" houses is flat roofs. They decided to save on the roofing material, so the roofs were filled with bitumen. Attic spaces in houses have become very low.
The architect Vitaly Lagutenko was engaged in the development of houses of this type - it is he who is considered the founder of panel housing construction in the Soviet Union. True, not many have heard about Vitaly Lagutenko, but all music lovers in our country know his grandson, rock musician Ilya Lagutenko.
Prefabricated block houses were built very quickly. It took about two weeks to assemble one building. They say that an all-Union record of 5 days was set in Leningrad.
Why were the "Khrushchevs" five-story buildings? Again, in order to save money. Such houses, according to medical standards, did not need to be equipped with elevators. By the way, there is a legend - Nikita Sergeevich Khrushchev, who arrived at one of the construction sites, could not walk up to the fifth floor.
In many Khrushchev houses, there is a window between the kitchen and the bathroom. A window with a height of about 40 cm is located under the ceiling, in the kitchen it is opposite the street window. The most likely purpose of the window is due to the fact that during the years of construction of the Khrushchevs, power outages were not uncommon. In this case, a small amount of light entered the bathroom through the window, which made it possible to use the toilet and washbasin
Despite the fact that the rapidly erected five-story buildings were named after Nikita Sergeevich Khrushchev, their construction continued until the very restructuring. During this time, the total area of "Khrushchev" was about 290 million square meters. Every tenth inhabitant of the Soviet Union lived in them. An interesting fact: despite the small living space, the “Khrushchevs” had spacious courtyards, which are still remembered with sadness by many city dwellers.