Sometimes, trying to express their contempt for a remote place or a distant place, people say that this is Tmutarakan. But not many people know what it is and where this place is. It turns out that Tmutarakan, or as they say, Tmutarakan, is one of the most ancient cities of the Taman Peninsula, which is located on the territory of the modern village of Taman in the Temryuk district of the Krasnodar Territory.
In the VI century BC. the city was founded by the Greeks from the island of Lesvos and received the name Hermonassa. It had a developed structure and two-storey stone houses, which speaks of the wealth of the inhabitants. In the VI century, the city was conquered by the Türkic Kaganate and since that time received a new name - Tamatarha, which comes from the Türkic title of Tarkhan and the word Tumen, which meant the nomads fell under the influence of the Khazar Kaganate.
After the defeat of the Khazar Kaganate in 965 (or, according to other sources, in 968-969) by the Kiev prince Svyatoslav Igorevich, the city passed under the rule of Kievan Rus. Tmutarakan (Tmutorokan, Tmutorokon, Tmutorokan, Tmutorotan, Torokan) is the capital of the ancient Russian Tmutarakan principality (2nd half of X - XI). At this time, it is known as a major trading city with a good harbor. Through Tmutarakan, economic and political ties were maintained between the Russian principalities, the peoples of the North Caucasus and Byzantium. Zikhs, Greeks, Alans, Khazars, Slavs and Armenians continued to live in the city.
There is no information about the time of the conquest of Tmutarakan by Kievan Rus. It is believed that it happened during the eastern campaign of Svyatoslav in the 960s, or as a result of Vladimir's campaign in Korsun in 988. Previously, this territory was part of the Khazar Kaganate, and before that it was the core of the Bosporus kingdom.
In 988/1010-1036, the principality was in the possession of Mstislav Vladimirovich (died in 1036). In 1022, Mstislav conquered the Kasogs, killing their prince Rededu in a duel. In the city of Tmutarakan, Mstislav founded the Church of the Mother of God, later, with the establishment of the Tmutarakan diocese, which became episcopal. In 1024, the Battle of Listven took place, which consolidated the authority of the Tmutarakan principality. In 1030 Mstislav Vladimirovich made a campaign against Shirvan. In 1032, in alliance with the Saririans and Alans, the second campaign against Shirvan was launched. In 1033, in alliance with the Alans - the third, unsuccessful.
Since 1054, the Tmutarakan principality was part of the possession of the Chernigov prince Svyatoslav Yaroslavich. In the 2nd half of the 11th century. the principality was ruled by his sons Gleb, Roman and Oleg Svyatoslavichi. In the later period, it was repeatedly captured by other princes. In the XI century, the Polovtsian nomads cut off Tmutarakan from Russia.
In 1083, with the help of the Byzantine fleet, Oleg Svyatoslavich, the last chronicle prince of Tmutarakan, reigned in Tmutarakan. He, under the name of Michael, appears as the Byzantine archon of Matarchy, Zikhiya and all of Khazaria.
The last time Tmutarakan was mentioned in Russian chronicles was in 1094. Later, the principality was under the sovereignty of Byzantium. According to the testimony of missionaries, the population and the rulers professed Christianity. According to Pletneva S.A., in the XII century. Polovtsian domination was established in Tmutarakan. According to another version, the Kasog princes ruled there, having dynastic ties with the Russians.
In the XIII-XV centuries the city was a colony of Genoa, at the same time it was ruled by the Adyghe princes. In 1419, the dynastic marriage of the noble Genoese Vincenzo de Gizolfi and the daughter of the Adygian prince Berozokh - Biha-khanum is mentioned. The son of this marriage, Zacharias de Ghizolfi, became the ruler of the city. However, in 1475 the Turks captured Matrega and annexed it to their possessions. Nevertheless, Zechariah's diplomatic activity helped him retain his post as head of the city. The Turkish fortress Hunkala was built to the east of the city, on the ruins of a Genoese fortress, the city itself was named Taman (XVI - late XVIII).
The city returned to Russia only after several centuries. As a result of the Russo-Turkish War, Taman became part of the Russian Empire. In 1792, the Zaporozhye Cossacks moved to the Taman Peninsula. On the site of the former Turkish fortress Taman, they founded their first settlement - the village of Taman.
That's it, friends, now you know that Taman and Tmutarakan are one and the same city, just separated by several centuries.