Kolomna is one of the oldest cities in Russia; it was first mentioned in the Laurentian Chronicle for 1177. Kolomna is only 30 years younger than Moscow. At the same time, archaeological excavations show that people lived in this area as early as the 7th-6th millennia BC. At the beginning of our era, the Finno-Ugric peoples lived here, and in the 7th century the Slavs appeared.
12 interesting facts about Kolomna
- There are about two dozen versions of the origin of the name of this ancient Russian city. But, it was not possible to come to a final conclusion. Some researchers associate the word "Kolomna" with the Old Slavic "Kolo", which means "circle, wheel, sun". Others argue that the city was a border town for a long time, and the word "kolloma" is of Polovtsian origin and translates as "guard". But Vladimir Ivanovich Dal found another explanation: "kolomen" - "outskirts", "outskirts".
- The famous expression "Kolomna verst" has nothing to do with the city. In 1667, a huge palace was laid in the village of Kolomenskoye near Moscow, which later became the summer residence of Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich. On the road from the Kremlin to Kolomenskoye, milestones were installed, which indicated the distance to the palace. Now the village of Kolomenskoye is located in the Southern Administrative District of Moscow.
- At the end of the summer of 1380, Dmitry Donskoy arrived in Kolomna. Here he continued to gather troops for the battle on the Kulikovo field. Here he was joined by about 40, 000 soldiers who arrived from different principalities of Russia. In 2007, a 12-meter monument was erected to Grand Duke Dmitry Donskoy in Kolomna. Work on it took about three years.
- Limestone has been mined near Kolomna since ancient times. It was used for the construction and reconstruction of the Kolomna Kremlin, and in the 19th century it was supplied to Moscow for the construction of the grandiose Cathedral of Christ the Savior. A cement plant is currently operating in Kolomna. Local limestone is an excellent raw material for the production of white cement and Portland cement.
- Until the 16th century, the fortress walls of Kolomna were made of wood. Only in 1521, after the city was defeated by the Crimean Khan Mehmet Girey the First, it was decided to replace them with stone ones. The construction lasted for ten whole years. In one of the fortress towers, the wife of False Dmitry, Marina Mnishek, languished in captivity. She died there in 1614. Since then, the tower itself has received the name Marinkina. In the second half of the 17th century, due to the expansion of the state's borders, Kolomna lost its status of a defensive fortress, the Kremlin began to be gradually dismantled for civil buildings. The destruction was stopped only by the decree of Nicholas I in 1826.
- There is a legend in the city that Marina Mnishek did not die in captivity, but flew away from Kolomna, turning into a crow. And her innumerable treasures remained hidden in the Kremlin. More than one generation of treasure hunters tried to find them, but no one succeeded: Mnishek imposed a conspiracy on them.
- In 1775, Empress Catherine II visited Kolomna. She liked the city itself, however, she noticed that the development of the city was chaotic, therefore, she ordered to carry out "restructuring", on the project of which the famous architect Matvey Kazakov worked. He arrived in the city in December 1777, having stayed here for about three weeks.
- The future famous writer Ivan Ivanovich Lazhechnikov was born in Kolomna in 1792. In 1812, Ivan joined the people's militia against the will of his father, a wealthy Kolomna merchant. Together with the Russian army, Lazhechnikov reached Paris, in 1814 he was awarded the Order of St. Anne of the 4th degree. Lazhechnikov mentioned his native Kolomna more than once in his works. Now the Lazhechnikov estate houses a branch of the Kolomna Museum of Local Lore.
- In 1863, a railway passed through Kolomna. It is interesting that at first the local authorities were against the construction of the railway and asked too much money for the allocation of a strip of land for the construction of tracks and a station. Therefore, the first railway station Kolomna was built three kilometers from the city on the private land of engineer Struve. Residents began to complain about the distance of the stopping point and the authorities begged to build a new station in Kolomna itself, but the ticket price increased to recoup the construction costs. Two Kolomna stations with different ticket prices worked side by side for more than 40 years.
- Kolomna was famous for its marshmallow, a traditional Russian dessert. It is even mentioned in "Domostroy". True, it was called then not "pastila", but "post", from the word "bed." Sweet dough was laid on special wooden boards. The local merchant Shershavin supplied this delicacy even to the imperial table. Russian pastille has long been forgotten. It is not without reason that a museum with a curious name is now open in Kolomna: "Kolomenskaya marshmallow. Museum of the vanished taste".
- In 2012, a monument to a water carrier was erected in Kolomna. Until the beginning of the twentieth century, water carriers took water from the Moscow River and transported it along the city streets. The local blacksmith A. Yakushev decided to celebrate their hard work, who undertook the construction of the monument. The sculptural group, installed on the banks of the Moskva River, consists of figures of the water carrier itself, a dog and a water barrel.
- In 1902, the first water tower appeared in Kolomna. It was installed at the expense of a wealthy merchant Maria Nikolaevna Shevlyagina. She inherited a huge fortune from her father, which Maria Nikolaevna generously donated to charity.