Currently, the Evenki region is part of the Krasnoyarsk Territory, and until 2007 was the Evenki Autonomous Okrug. Evenkia covers an area of 763, 197 square kilometers, which is about ten times the size of the Czech Republic. At the same time, the population of the Evenk region is only 17, 000 people. It turns out that there are almost 45 square kilometers per inhabitant.
There is not a single city on the territory of Evenkia, and the largest settlement is the village of Tura, with a population of about five and a half thousand inhabitants. It is Tura that is the administrative center of the Evenk region. Interestingly, a hundred years ago, on the site of the modern settlement, there was only a shop and a barn of the merchant Savvateev, who imported goods for the local population and bought furs from him. And in 1939 the population of Tura already exceeded 1, 500 inhabitants.
The northernmost village of Evenkia is Essei, located on the shore of the lake of the same name. The history of the village goes back almost four centuries, in 1628 the Mangazei Cossacks built a prison here. In the middle of the 19th century, local Yakuts and Evenks converted to Orthodoxy, and in 1892 an Orthodox church was opened here, the first on the territory of modern Evenkia.
In 1933, the first issue of a newspaper was published in Evenkia, which was called “The Evenk New Life”. It turned out to be not so easy to establish a regular publication of the newspaper. It was with great difficulty that the printing equipment was delivered to Tura, but there was no electricity, everything had to be done by hand. For the rotation of the drive wheel, the position of a spinner was even introduced. The first Evenk printers were the spouses Efim Sidorovich and Agniya Ivanovna Mashukov.
The indigenous population of these places is the Evenks. Representatives of this people live on a vast territory from the banks of the Yenisei to the Sea of Okhotsk. The total number is 77, 000 people, while less than 4, 000 Evenks live on the territory of the Evenk region. At the beginning of the twentieth century, the Russian ethnographer Alexei Alekseevich Makarenko made an expedition along the Katanga River (Podkamennaya Tunguska) to collect information about the settlement and lifestyle of the local population.
The main activities of the Evenks were hunting and reindeer herding. In the harsh local conditions, deer were the main means of transport. In recent years, the number of deer in Evenkia has sharply decreased. Attempts are being made to revive this traditional activity of the Evenks. After all, one of the self-names of the Evenks is "Orochon", which translates as "a man who owns a deer."
The largest river in Evenkia is Podkamennaya Tunguska, which is the second largest tributary of the Yenisei. The length of the river is almost 3, 000 kilometers, navigation on it is difficult due to dangerous rapids and whirlpools. The Lower Tunguska was described in his novel "Gloomy River" by the Russian writer Vyacheslav Yakovlevich Shishkov, who more than once went on expeditions to these places at the beginning of the twentieth century.
In the late sixties, the feature film "Friend of Tymanchi" was shot in the Evenk village of Nidym. The picture is based on real events about the friendship of a young Evenk and a wolf cub he raised. The film was recognized as the best in 1970 at the Monte Carlo Film Festival. In addition, the film won the Golden Nymph Award for Best Screenplay.
Of course, for many it will seem surprising, but it is Evenkia that is located in the center of Russia. In 1992, it was established that the geographical center of our country has the following coordinates - 66 degrees 25 minutes north latitude and 94 degrees 15 minutes east longitude. And this is the southeastern shore of Lake Vivi in Evenkia. In 2014, after the inclusion of the Crimean Peninsula into the Russian Federation, the center of Russia shifted slightly to the south, but, as before, it is located on the territory of Evenkia.
The most popular sport in Evenkia is the northern all-around. This exotic species includes a triple national jump, tynzei throwing on a troche, sled jumping, ax throwing, and cross-country running with a stick. Representatives of the indigenous peoples of the North participate in the competition, and there are even Russian champions among the Evenk athletes. By the way, the best ax throwers are capable of sending a projectile 200 meters or more.
On June 17, 1908, a huge fireball, called the Tunguska meteorite, crashed into the territory of the present-day Evenki region. The crash from the fall was heard at a distance of up to 800 kilometers. There are many hypotheses (at least 120) of what happened, but none of them has been generally accepted to date. It was originally thought to be a huge meteorite.
But the famous Soviet science fiction writer Alexander Kazantsev in the forties of the last century put forward a version that it could be a space alien ship that crashed while flying over the Evenk taiga. The assumption, of course, is interesting, but it has not received scientific confirmation.