The term and trade name "vodka" first received its modern meaning (a solution of purified ethanol in water) in the USSR with the adoption of GOST from 1936. Prior to that, the word "vodka", which appeared in the Russian language around the XIV-XV centuries, did not have a clearly defined meaning. Most often, "vodka" was called an infusion of herbs, roots or berries on strong alcohol.
A drink that was extremely reminiscent of vodka came to Russia from Italy. It was brought by merchants from the city of Genoa, which at that time, along with Venice, monopolized all maritime trade in Europe. Before that, the Russians only cooked mead. Alcohol at that time was obtained from grapes, and after 100-150 years vodka firmly took its place in the country. True, it was used for medical purposes rather than for amusement. Well, the first taverns, in which even a simple man could get drunk as a lord for a symbolic fee, appeared already under Tsar Ivan the Terrible.
And Emperor Peter the Great, with his characteristic decisiveness, abolished the state monopoly on the production of vodka, but imposed a serious tax on the producers and thereby significantly increased the receipts to the state treasury.
Contrary to the prevailing misconception, Mendeleev has nothing to do with the invention of vodka. Before the advent of alcohol meters in Russia, the strength of a water-alcohol mixture was measured by the so-called "annealing". If exactly half of the burnt wine burned out, such a wine was called a half-bar. Polugar, the strength of which is 38.3%, and served as the basic standard unit. Subsequently, when the fortress began to be measured with alcohol meters, the Minister of Finance of the Russian Empire M. Kh. Reitern proposed to round this figure to forty. Vodka, despite its controversial reputation, is the purest (or one of the purest) alcoholic beverage in the world.
In fact, 1 liter of vodka does not weigh 1 kilogram, as many think, but 952 grams. Taking 1 liter of vodka for a very short period of time will be fatal for 50% of people.
It is better to eat vodka, not drink it. Firstly, you need to eat according to etiquette, and secondly, this is much easier for the body. It is better to snack on vodka with something hot, for example, lamb or veal, rather than cold (pickled mushrooms, pickled cucumbers).
There are several museums around the world dedicated to vodka. Today I want to talk about some of them. In 2001, the Museum of the History of Vodka was opened in St. Petersburg. 5 years later, in 2006, he was moved to Moscow. There is really something to see in the "Museum of the History of Vodka". After all, the history of this drink in Russia goes back at least 5 centuries. The museum is divided into 5 sectors: the Old Russian era, the Russian Empire, the Great Patriotic War, the USSR and modern Russia.
Vodka also has its own shelf life, and it is only 1 year from the date of production. Therefore, after just 12 months, the vodka becomes unusable. In a bottle or other container, an alkaline precipitate may fall out, which is extremely harmful to the body.
Expired vodka can cause food poisoning.
Vodka is best consumed chilled. The optimum temperature is +9 degrees. Sometimes dishonest owners of cafes and restaurants, trying to hide the low-quality origin of the drink, cool it even more so that the customers of the establishment do not feel that something was wrong.
Source: Wikipedia, best-recipe.biz