The word "manga" was coined by the famous artist Katsushika Hokusai in 1814 for a series of his prints. It means "grotesque", "strange (or funny) pictures", so the term "manga" refers exclusively to Japanese comics. And in 1917, the first anime cartoons began to be produced.
Anime is Japanese animation. The word "anime" itself is nothing more than a Japaneseized abbreviation for the English animation, and the term itself appeared relatively recently. Prior to this, the expression "manga-eiga" ("movie comics") was used, which is still used by fans of the older generation of anime.
As you know, in Japan people read from right to left. Right to left manga is read all over the world.
Using the big eyes of characters to convey emotions was not invented in Japan at all. Osamu Tezuka, considered the founder of the anime tradition, did not deny that he borrowed this technique from Walt Disney. By the way, according to the canons of anime, it is believed that the more significant the hero, the better the artists draw his eyes. The exception is made by villains - sometimes they can simply be attached with black "pits".
The voice actors in the anime are called the Japanese word "seiyu". The profession of voice actor is popular and developed in Japan, thanks to which the voice acting of anime series compares favorably with similar works in other countries. Many voice actors are also variety performers.
The longest anime series "Sazae-san" began airing in 1969 based on the manga by Matiko Hasegawa and has not finished showing until now. several generations of Japanese have grown up watching the adventures of Sazae and her family.
The work of director Hayao Miyazaki is considered to be the ideal of classic anime. His Spirited Away was the first and only animated film to win the Berlin Film Festival Award for Best Picture, not Best Cartoon.
According to the age of the audience, anime is divided into:
Kodomo is a manga and anime intended for children (up to 12 years old). A distinctive feature of this genre - in its "childishness", there is no (sometimes just greatly simplified) ideological content. A characteristic pattern can also be added here. Kodomo anime is often very close to the European or American school of animation and is very different from other types of anime, not only in drawing, but also in the construction of the series.
Shounen is an anime for older boys and young men (from 12 to 16-18 years old). The main features of the genre are: rapid development and pronounced dynamism of the plot (especially in comparison with shojo). The works contain many humorous scenes, based on the themes of strong male friendships, any kind of rivalry in life, sports or martial arts.
Shojo - anime and manga for older girls and women (from 12 to 16-18 years old). In the plot of the anime shojo, as a rule, there are love relationships of varying degrees of intimacy, depending on the age of the target audience, much attention is paid to the development of characters' images.
Seinen is an anime for adult men (from 18 to 25-40 years old). The characteristic features of this genre are elements of psychology, satire, eroticism, more attention is paid to the development of characters.
Josei is an anime or manga for women. The plot most often describes the daily life of a woman living in Japan.
By genre: in addition to standard Comedy, Action, History, Martial Arts, Drama, Detective, Science fiction, there are more ...
Mecha - complex mechanisms, as a rule, self-propelled, having no real prototypes. Usually this term refers to "giant fighting humanoid robots", huge human-controlled combat vehicles.
Cyberpunk is the world of the future, the life of which is completely determined by computer technologies. At the same time, the pictures of the future appear gloomy and dystopian.
Dobutsu is an anime about humanoid "furry" creatures. Derived from the Japanese word "dobutsu" (doubutsu), which means "animal". Dobutsu includes anime with creatures "neko" (feline), "kitsune" (foxes), "usagi" (hare), etc.
Idols is an anime that is associated with pop stars and the music business.
Hentai / Etty is a pornographic or erotic anime or manga, respectively. Works can also be at the junction between hentai and other genres and have a fairly well-developed plot.
Yaoi is an anime genre describing male homosexual relationships, usually aimed at women and girls.
Yuri is an anime genre describing female lesbian relationships, usually aimed at women and girls.
Shootakon is an anime genre that describes sexual relations involving young men of primary school and preschool age.
Lolicon is an anime genre describing sexual relationships involving little girls.
Shojo-ai is an anime genre that describes a girl's love for a girl. It differs from yuri in the absence of explicit scenes.
Shounen-ai is an anime genre that describes the love of a young man for a young man. It differs from yaoi in the absence of explicit scenes.