Pierre de Fermat (1601-1665), a lawyer from Toulouse, although not a professional mathematician, left a huge mark on this science. He is considered the father of modern number theory, probability theory and analytic geometry. The scientist loved to create new theorems in the quiet of his office, and at the same time tease his contemporaries-mathematicians, challenging them - find the missing proof.
So in 1637, in the margins of "Arithmetic" by Diophantus, an ancient Greek mathematician who solved indefinite equations, the famous notes of Fermat appeared. Diophantus gave a general solution to the problem: "Divide a square number by two other square numbers." In the language of algebra, the solutions of such an equation x2 + y2 = z2 are called Pythagorean triplets, since they are the sides of a right-angled triangle, for which the Pythagorean theorem is true. Fermat wrote: "It is impossible to divide a cube into two other cubes, the fourth degree or any degree higher than the second by two degrees with the same notation, and I have found a truly remarkable proof of this, but the margins are too narrow to accommodate it." Thus, he became the author of the most difficult problem on Earth, called "Fermat's Last Theorem": the equation xn + yn = zn, n> 2 is unsolvable in natural numbers. He seemed to tease the descendants with false hopes. So the race began, which continued until the end of the last century.
In 1908, a Wolfskehl prize of 100, 000 marks was announced to the one who was the first to be able to prove this theorem within 100 years. Professional mathematicians considered the search for a proof of the theorem a hopeless task and refused to waste their time on such a useless task. And only after almost a century, a professional finally appeared, who completed this epic. Wiles' two papers, totaling 130 pages, have been extensively reviewed and published in May 1995 in the Annals of Mathematics. The math community can finally calm down. In 1997, Wiles received the $ 50, 000 Wolfskehl Prize. Fermat's Last Theorem was officially proven.