Saliva is a viscous, slightly turbid liquid substance that has a pH of 5, 6 to 7, 6, 98, 5% and more consists of water, and also contains salts of various acids, trace elements and cations of some alkali metals, mucin (it forms and glues a food lump), lysozyme (antiseptic), enzymes amylase and maltase, which break down carbohydrates to oligo- and monosaccharides, as well as other enzymes, some vitamins.
Did you know these interesting facts about saliva:
- Saliva has the ability to neutralize acids and alkalis.
- On average, a person secretes 1-2.5 liters of saliva per day.
- Salivation is controlled by the autonomic nervous system, and salivation centers are located in the medulla oblongata. Moreover, the composition of saliva is automatically regulated depending on the composition of the food.
- Without stimulation, saliva secretion occurs at a rate of about 0.5 ml / min.
- Saliva is produced in three large salivary glands - the parotid, submandibular, and sublingual.
- Salivary production decreases with stress, fright, or dehydration, and virtually ceases during sleep and anesthesia. Increased salivation occurs under the action of olfactory and gustatory stimuli, as well as due to mechanical irritation by large food particles and during chewing.
- Saliva has high buffering properties, allowing it to neutralize acids and alkalis and thus protect tooth enamel from damaging effects.
- Until saliva permeates the food, we cannot determine the taste.
- Dog saliva contains lysozyme, an antibacterial substance that promotes rapid healing of wounds and abrasions. It is also present in human saliva, but in much smaller quantities.
- Saliva has a boiling point three times that of ordinary water.
- At the moment of a kiss, an average of 60 mg of saliva with various organic substances, as well as fats, salts and about 20 thousand bacteria, 95% of which are harmless, comes from mouth to mouth.
- Cows excrete 90 to 190 liters of saliva per day to chew food.
- In US baseball, a pitcher is not allowed to spit on the ball because the oiled ball travels in an atypical trajectory, making it difficult for the batter to play.
- A camel's mouth contains up to 3 liters of saliva, and when angry he spits it out at the offender at a distance of up to 5 meters.