Typically, diabetes is caused by autoimmune aggression - the destruction of the cells that produce insulin by the immune system. The process can be provoked, for example, by a cold, any physiological or psychoemotional stress, but only in the presence of a genetic predisposition, which modern medicine is not able to influence.
A demonstrative and obligatory manifestation of the disease is a violation of carbohydrate metabolism with a progressive increase in the level of glucose in the blood and its excretion in the urine. Significant loss of sugar in the urine is the cause of persistent osmotic diuresis (diabetes) and developing dehydration and hypokalemia.
The earliest mention of a disease for which diabetes could be diagnosed was found in the Eber papyrus 1500 BC. Diabetes is a derivative of the Greek word "diabaino", which means "I go through something, through", "I flow." The ancient physician Aretheus of Cappadocia (30 ... 90 AD) observed polyuria in patients, which he associated with the fact that the fluids entering the body flow through it and are excreted unchanged.
In 1889, Oskar Minkowski (1858-1931) discovered the connection between diabetes and the pancreas. When he removed it from the dog, the animal developed diabetes.
The name "insulin" comes from the Latin "insula", which means "island", as the hormone is secreted from the islets of Langerhans located in the pancreas.
Before the discovery of insulin, surgeons rarely operated on patients with gangrene due to diabetes, as patients inevitably died after such an operation. Sometimes gangrene "autoamputated", that is, the gangrene area dried up and disappeared by itself.
Before the discovery of insulin in 1921, doctors often prescribed starvation or semi-starvation diets to their patients, recommending only one type of food, such as oatmeal. The first attempt to treat diabetes mellitus with insulin injections was made in 1922. Thompson lived for another 13 years and died of pneumonia, which developed, however, against the background of ketoacidosis - a complication of diabetes mellitus.
Obesity often leads to diabetes - approximately 90% of people with type 2 diabetes are overweight.
In 1996, at her home in Pennsylvania, a 16-year-old girl died from a bout of diabetes. Instead of providing the patient with medicine, her parents prayed for her salvation. They were later charged with manslaughter.
Some researchers find a connection in the development of type 1 diabetes with the patient's contact with viruses, especially with the Coxsackie virus.
African Americans and Hispanic Americans are more prone to type 2 diabetes than whites. There are 74 cases per 1, 000 African Americans, 61 per 1, 000 are Hispanic, and 1, 000 white people have 36 cases.
Approximately one in three African American women aged 64 and above develop diabetes.
Some studies have shown that people with diabetes are at a much higher risk of Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia than other people, although the reasons for this are unknown.
There are about 86, 000 lower limb amputations in diabetic patients each year in the United States. The number of amputations is higher among men than among women. Experts argue that about half of all amputations could have been avoided if more serious preventive work had been carried out with the population.
Cases of diabetes have been found in horses, ferrets and chipmunks. Where animals are fed unattended, diabetes can develop in dolphins, foxes, and even hippos.
Diabetes sometimes causes blindness. Experts argue that early diagnosis of diabetes and timely treatment could prevent up to 90% of the blindness that diabetes leads to.
Although the incidence of heart disease has recently dropped by 27% in women without diabetes, it has increased in 23% of women with diabetes.
Multiple Olympic champion Gary Hall Jr. suffered from type 1 diabetes. When the diagnosis was made, his doctor told him to retire from sailing. Gary changed doctors, continued training and after a while won the gold medal of the Olympics.
White children are at a higher risk of developing type 1 diabetes than other races, although the number of cases may vary from country to country. Risk factors include illness at an early age, an older mother at birth, type 1 diabetes in the mother, late pregnancy toxicosis in the mother, and a high birth weight.
Eating disorders often develop in people with diabetes, especially adolescent girls with type 1 diabetes. Some of them sometimes skip insulin injections in order to lose weight.
Approximately 11% of Americans aged 65 to 74 have diabetes. About 20% of those over 74 also have diabetes, and half of them do not even know about their illness.
Diabetics have a higher risk of developing gingivitis, which can lead to tooth loss. However, only half of Hispanic Americans visit dentists regularly, compared with 58% of African Americans and 70% of non-Hispanic whites.
Insulin in inhalers for type 1 diabetes began to spread widely in the 21st century. Pharmaceutical companies are also developing pills that can be placed under the tongue.
People with diabetes are more susceptible to complications from influenza and pneumonia. They end up in the hospital with these problems six times more often than people without diabetes. According to the Center for Disease Control, between 10, 000 and 30, 000 people with diabetes die each year from pneumonia and the flu.
Experts say that diabetes shortens the life of people with it by 5-10 years, and men die from it more often than women.
Studies show that average glucose levels may be higher in diabetic girls who have menstrual problems. These girls have a higher number of hospitalizations for diabetic ketoacidosis.
Oatmeal soluble fiber helps control blood sugar levels. Harvard researchers have determined that eating oat products two to four times a week can reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes by 16%. Eating oatmeal five or six times a week reduces this risk by almost 40%.
Diabetes mellitus is the collective name for several types of this disease, including type 1, type 2, gestational diabetes, adult-onset diabetes, and latent autoimmune diabetes in adults. The common thing in these diseases is that the organisms of people suffering from them are unable to independently regulate blood sugar levels.
Ancient doctors diagnosed diabetes by tasting a patient's urine. Sweet urine was considered the main symptom of diabetes.