According to the World Health Organization (WHO), about a third of the adult population, or about 1.1 billion people, smoke on Earth. Of these, 200 million are women. Tobacco causes 3.5 million deaths annually, claiming 10, 000 lives every day. More than a trillion cigarettes are smoked by the world's population every year. The inhabitants of the Earth spend $ 100 billion a year on tobacco products.
The first anti-smoking measures in Europe were taken even before the introduction of tobacco on the continent. A member of the Columbus expedition, Rodrigo de Jerez, was imprisoned for smoking with the sentence "only the devil can endow a person with the ability to blow smoke from his nostrils."
In 1575, in Spain, the Catholic Church introduced a ban on smoking in places where prayers are held.
At the beginning of the 17th century, widespread promotion of smoking began in Western Europe, as it brought good income to producers and the state, and a ban on smoking and growing tobacco was introduced in Russia. It was only in 1685 that this ban was lifted by Peter the Great for a large reward from the Anglo-Virginia Company that traded American tobacco.
In 1624, the Catholic Church, led by Pope Urban the Eighth, begins a serious fight against tobacco, the punishment for tobacco use is excommunication. Two years later, the Greek Orthodox Church takes the same measures.
In 1761, the English doctor John Hill conducted the first clinical trials and published the first work on the harmful effects of tobacco on humans.
In 1828, chemists Ludwig Reimann and Wilhelm Posselt isolated nicotine from tobacco in Germany.
In 1830, the first massive campaign against tobacco products began in the United States.
1860, the beginning of the mass production of cigarettes, until this year in medicine there was essentially no mention of lung cancer, today lung cancer accounts for more than 60% of all cancers.
Since 1934, the fight against smoking was carried out in Nazi Germany - the first state program to combat tobacco smoking in modern history. ... Restrictions on tobacco advertising were imposed, the diet of tobacco products allocated to women and the military was limited, and smoking in restaurants and cafes was limited The campaign also relied on Hitler's personal aversion to tobacco.
Anti-tobacco campaigns in the modern world
In Russia, smoking is prohibited in educational and medical institutions, public transport and at stadiums. You can not film smoking people for advertising and advertise tobacco products on TV. The sale of cigarettes to minors is also prohibited.
In the United States, each state fights smoking in its own way. In New York State, for example, smoking is prohibited in closed public areas and company vehicles. The fine for violation is $ 1, 000.
In Italy, the fine for smoking in public places ranges from 250 to 2000 euros.
In the Himalayan Kingdom of Bhutan, tobacco is outlawed. A fine of $ 225 was imposed for the sale of cigarettes. At the same time, the average salary in the country is $ 16.
A nationwide campaign in Sweden called the "Non-Smoking Generation" has affected everyone born after 1975. If a Swedish student is studying in Norwegian Oslo or Danish Copenhagen and wants to get a scholarship, he must quit smoking, so the foundation that distributes scholarships ordered.
In Denmark, 75% of workers have declared tobacco-free workplaces.
In Germany, an amendment has been made to the insurance law: the contribution of a non-smoker is 40% less, since it is cheaper for medicine. It is known that in Germany time is allocated for smoke breaks. But the time of those who voluntarily quit smoking is added up and added to the vacation.
In the UK, from this summer, smoking will be banned in all pubs, restaurants, clubs and most organizations. Smoking is allowed only in private apartments, prisons and hotel rooms. The fine for violation can be up to £ 2, 500.
Belgium has signed a law banning smoking in most indoor public spaces. For violation - a fine of $ 480.
In Holland, all citizens from 12 to 16 years old who, after special tests prove that they do not smoke, will be paid $ 200 monthly.
In Finland, a law has been passed, according to which smoking is allowed only on the street. "Anti-Smoking Month" was invented by the Finns.
In Spain, the sale of tobacco products in hospitals and educational institutions is prohibited. Smoking is prohibited on public transport, in premises where pregnant women work, in administrative buildings, in food processing shops, in reading and exhibition rooms, in elevators, in theaters, cinemas, and indoor sports facilities.
In Poland, smoking in public places was banned and vending machines selling cigarettes to any teenager were removed from the streets.
In Hungary, for smoking in the wrong place, a fine of $ 125 is levied, for violation of the rules of sale - up to $ 420.
In Canada, smoking is prohibited in all government institutions of the country; smokers are prohibited from appearing with a cigarette at work, at airports, at train stations. Ashtrays disappeared from bars and restaurants. Tobacco companies are not allowed to sponsor sporting events.
In Singapore, smoking is prohibited in elevators, buses, subways, trains, hospitals and clinics, cinemas and restaurants. The country does not allow cigarette advertising and has a high tax. Warning: "No smoking - $ 500 fine" has become the norm.
In Osaka, Japan, the firm pays bonuses to nonsmokers. Employees who survived without tobacco for six months receive $ 190.
In Malaysia, the government provides soft loans to those who quit smoking.
In Turkey, in one small village it is forbidden to smoke for adults, so as not to set a bad example for the younger generation. The violator of the village decree gives a bag of sugar or a bag of flour to the poor. There is a museum in Turkey that contains recipes from people who quit smoking.
Highest cigarette prices
The highest cigarette prices are currently in New Zealand at 12 euros. More recently, the New Zealand government decided to further increase the excise tax on cigarettes over the next four years by 40%, as a result of which a pack of cigarettes will cost about 60 euros !!!
The rest of the leading countries:
Mauritius 8, 25
Norway 8, 02
Scotland 7, 50
Iceland 7, 57
UK 7, 36
Ireland 6, 35
Singapore 5, 90
Australia 5, 50
France 5, 00
Israel 5, 00
Claims against Tobacco Companies
The worldwide anti-tobacco campaign has led to numerous lawsuits by former smokers against tobacco companies. Smokers and their relatives are filing thousands of claims in the courts for the payment of multimillion-dollar compensation. Anti-smoking struggles with powerful tobacco companies have been going on for over a century and have only begun to bear fruit relatively recently, with overwhelming evidence that smoking actually kills.
The most powerful anti-smoking movement and the most stringent anti-smoking laws are in the United States. For the first time in 1954, American Eva Cooper accused R.J. Reynolds Tobacco was implicated in the death of her husband, a Camel consumer. But the court found no evidence in the case that Cooper's illness was caused by smoking. After that, for decades, the position of the tobacco companies remained unshakable.
It was only in 1988 that a federal jury in New Ark found the Ligett Group cigarette manufacturers partly responsible for Rosa Cipollone's death from lung cancer. The company paid more than $ 400, 000 to the husband of the deceased, who stated in writing on the eve of her death that she believed the advertising of the company, which claimed that her cigarettes were not hazardous to health. This is how the first case of payment of compensation for health damage from smoking was registered.
In September 1996, one of the largest lawsuits in history against a tobacco company was won on charges of loss of health. A Jacksonville, California court ruled that Brown & Williamson Tobacco Corp. (Lucky Strike brand) must pay $ 750 thousand to relatives of a man who died five years ago from lung cancer. Thus began a new era marked by an avalanche of lawsuits.
In addition to individuals, state administrations are also taking legal action. They demand reimbursement of their expenses for the treatment of victims of smoking-related diseases. Defending claims against large companies for real or perceived damage to human health is becoming one of the most popular and lucrative lawyers in the United States. The first idea to sue tobacco companies not from an individual victim of smoking, but from a state that spends a lot of money on medical treatment under the Medicaid program, came to the mind of a lawyer from Mississippi, Richard Scruggs, who earned more than $ 1 billion, helping the American states to obtain payments from manufacturers cigarettes to compensate for the damage caused to the health of the population of the territories involved in the litigation. An amicable settlement in 1998 ordered the tobacco companies to pay the plaintiffs $ 246 billion.
In January 1998, federal authorities approved a court order for cigarette manufacturers to pay $ 15.3 billion to the state of Texas. This amount then became the largest fine in US history. And this case is by no means an isolated one.
In September 1999, the US government filed a lawsuit in the Washington Federal Court against the eight largest US tobacco companies, which account for 98% of cigarettes sold in the US, including Philip Morris, RJR, Brown & Williamson Tobacco, BAT, Ligget. Tobacco manufacturers have been accused of fraudulently deceiving the population for a quarter of a century. The US government lawsuit alleged that the heads of leading American tobacco companies gathered in the Plaza Hotel in New York in 1954 and agreed to withhold information they knew about the damaging effects of smoking on human health.
Over the past several years, more than 40 states have sued tobacco companies in order to recover huge amounts of compensation from the defendants for causing damage to the health of not only active, but also passive smokers. The Palm family persisted in a lawsuit launched by non-smoker Ms. Gan Palm, who died of lung cancer. The persistence of family members led to the adoption of a precedent by the court: "This case of lung cancer can be classified as an occupational injury resulting from secondhand smoke in the workplace."
In 2000, as a result of the anti-smoking campaign in the United States, Marlboro was ordered to pay $ 74 billion after a losing trial.
In 2000, a court ruled that tobacco companies operating in the United States are required to pay Florida residents $ 145 billion in compensation for damage caused by smoking to their health.
In 2001, a medical insurance firm won for the first time a lawsuit against tobacco companies. Blue Cross Blue Shield won $ 17.8 million. In the same year, smoker Richard Baken achieved record success. The court ruled that Philip Morris must pay him $ 3 billion, which was later reduced to $ 100 million.
In 2002, an Oregon court ruled that Philip Morris was misleading consumers about the quality of their "light" cigarettes. The company is obliged to pay $ 100 million. In the same year, Philip Morris lost another lawsuit. The court ruled that the 64-year-old Los Angeles resident with lung cancer should receive $ 28 million from Philip Morris for the fact that the cigarette manufacturer did not warn her about the dangers of smoking in time.
In 2003, a court decision ordered the American tobacco company Philip Morris to pay $ 81 million to the widow and children of Oregon resident Jess Williams, who smoked Marlboro cigarettes for 40 years. The Williams family filed a lawsuit demanding $ 100 million, but the jury concluded that the tobacco company and the victim were equally guilty of negligence, after which the amount of compensation was reduced.
In 2004, a group of citizens in California punished a tobacco company for $ 189 million.
In 2005, in the ongoing series of lawsuits against the tobacco industry in the United States, another was added. Meryl Jones in New York sued Philip Morris for $ 22 million.
The total amount of claims of people who undermined their health on Philip Morris cigarettes reaches $ 150 billion.
The first trial in Russia "smoker against the tobacco company" took place in March 2001. Petersburg pensioner Ivan Prokopenko filed a lawsuit against the Petro tobacco factory, owned by the Japanese concern Japan Tobacco International (the successor to the famous Leningrad tobacco factory named after Uritsky). He claimed that the Belomorkanal cigarettes produced by Uritsky's factory had caused him lung cancer. The damage to the health of Prokopenko was estimated by his defense at two million rubles. The process lasted for years. In April 2003, Ivan Prokopenko died. Despite the death of the plaintiff, the process is not over. The co-plaintiff is Prokopenko's widow - Anna Antonovna.