Mirages are a unique and unpredictable phenomenon. In theory, we know everything about mirages, scientists can tell exactly what is the process of the emergence of a mirage, but in practice it is not so easy to see them, mainly due to the fact that mirages do not appear on demand, their phenomenon is always unpredictable.
According to legend, the mistress of this mysterious phenomenon is Fata Morgana, a mythical creature that lives on the seabed and deceives travelers with ghostly phenomena. Complex phenomena of a mirage with a sharp distortion of the appearance of objects are also called Fata Morgana.
Mirages are an optical phenomenon that occurs in the atmosphere, in fact it is the reflection of light between layers of air of different density. There are examples in history of how the simplest mirages are, for example, the image of a puddle on a road or in a field or desert. And also there are cases when several people simultaneously saw huge cities hanging in the sky.
People saw mirages in ancient times. The most colorful mirages in history describe the mirages of Palestine seen by the crusaders. But, for example, the Egyptians believed that a mirage is an image of something that no longer exists in the world, something that existed and disappeared from the face of the earth.
In the mountains, very rarely, under certain conditions, one can see a "distorted self" at a fairly close distance. This phenomenon is explained by the presence of "standing" water vapor in the air.
Interestingly, the brightest and clearest visions occur not in the desert, as is commonly believed, but in extreme cold conditions - in Alaska. Alaska is by far one of the best places for mirages to appear. There, even a society was created to study this phenomenon, which records all the mirages in a special journal.
In physics, such a phenomenon is known as refraction, this is a process when light rays are bent from warmer to colder ones. It happens in something like this: rays from a bright sky go to the ground, and then bend, repelling from the surface towards the eye. It turns out that formally we see the sky, only much lower than it really is. And the effects of movement and overflow are caused by the inhomogeneity of warm flows coming from a warm surface.