How fast is the electron moving?

When we talk about the elementary particles, light velocities and instantaneous data transmission come to mind immediately. But do you believe that the electron actually moves even slower than the usual snail? Let's try to arrange a small competition and clearly prove that the snail will be able to get an electron electron.

So, we will compare competitors.

Snail is a brochonian living in the forests, parks, meadows and near water bodies. It feeds on wild and cultural plants. Wear a beautiful sink on your back, in which the winter is experiencing.

The electron is a negatively charged elementary particle, "dwelling" in atoms of all chemical elements. Electrons love to "eat" by an electric field, under the influence of which they begin to move ordered in a certain direction, creating an electric current and activating the phones connected to the outlet.

It would seem what could be the comparison of the speeds between the snail crawling on the ground and electrons moving in the wire? After all, the speed of the snail is no more than 3 m / h, but still at the snail there is an opportunity to get ahead of the electron in speed, and this will happen at that moment until the elementary particle moves in the conductor.

At first glance, it seems that the electrons move in a wire with a huge speed - after all, when we press the switch, the light bulb in the room lights up instantly. But in fact, these are not electrons run through the wire with light speed, but the electrical field (the most that the electrons "feed" feeds) spreads through the entire conductor at the speed of light, forcing the electrons to move in one direction simultaneously along the entire length of the wire.

And the speed of movement of the electrons themselves is not so big. It can be calculated according to the following formula:

I = n · a · v · q, where

I - current strength;
n - the number of electrons per cubic meter;
A - wire section;
V is the electron flow rate;
Q - electron charge;

For example, the current is 1 amp, the amount of electrons in the copper wire is 8.5 × 10 28 on m 3, the electron charge is 1.6 × 10 -19, section Wires Take 0, 8 mm 2.

To find V, we will need to be divided by N · A · Q. By computing, we get the result equal to 1, 4 × 10 -4 m / s. This means that in one second the electron is approximately one seventh of a millimeter. It turns out an hour an electron will be able to overcome the distance approximately equal to 0, 5 meters. Snail at this time, as we remember, it will have time to overcome as much as 3 meters.

It turns out, the electron will remain far behind, and the well-deserved victory will catch snail.

Illustration: Depositphotos | Siloto