Insects are tens of thousands of times more than people. They surround us everywhere, and in some places from insects it is simply impossible to hide.
This is interesting: According to research by the Smithsonian Institute, each person accounts for about 200, 000, 000 insects.
And then we asshole various means from insects that we process clothes or apply to the skin before going to nature.
Insects can be divided into two categories: Insecticides and Repellents. The difference between them is essential: insecticides kill insects or affect the reduction of their number in the future, we will take away the ability to reproduce. Replicates simply make the place treated by them unattractive for insects or hide it.
The means that we smear on the skin or spray on clothing are repellents, while insecticides are often used to treat insect rooms or agricultural land.
How do insecticides work?
Insecticides can be compared with weapons of mass lesion to some extent. Their composition includes Pyrethroids - artificial analogues of natural chemical compounds contained in flowers from the Astrovy family. They quickly penetrate the insect organism and affect the nervous system, causing fast death.
Pyrethroids are equally effective against most insect species. But why then the means from insects using insecticides are not universal, and differentiated to destroy various types of insects? This is due to the fact that the use of insecticidal agents from insects falls in various conditions. For example, to destroy all OS, it is sufficient to find the aspen hive and process it with a pyreteroid spray. But when dealing with such insects, for example, cockroaches, we definitely do not know where their nest is, so with a smear of the means possible ways of their movement. To destroy pests, the insecticide should remain active for a long time, therefore various chemicals add to maintaining the effectiveness of pyrethroids under certain conditions. It turns out that the principle of the operation of insecticides is the same, and they differ in the ability and duration of work in various conditions.
It is recommended to use insecticides in extreme cases: in addition to the destruction of pests, they also kill useful insects, randomly found in the zone of their actions. In addition, insecticides have a poisoning effect on small animals and fish.
How do repellents work?
The name "Repellent" occurred from Latin "Repellens" - disgust, repel. What makes repellents such disgusting for insects? Basically, a hard-making organic connection diethyltolumide (often known as repellent under the abbreviation Deta - Deet English.). It was first in 1946 to protect the US Army from insects, and since 1965 began to be actively used for the manufacture of sprays and ointments sold in general-use stores. The principle of its action is simple: it neutralizes the smell of a man of lactic acid, which so strongly attracts mosquitoes and other bloodsowing insects. In addition, when insect hits (for example, during sputtering), diethyltolumide weakens the sensitivity of its receptor to carbon dioxide gas allocated by the "victims" during breathing.
Another substance often occurring in repellents is Picaridine (or Icaridine). Picaridine acts in the same way as diethyltoluamide, masking the smells of lactic acid and reducing the sensitivity of the insect receptors, but appeared on the market much later - in the early 2000s.
But not always repellents mask the victim from bloodsuckers. Sometimes their composition includes components that repel insects, being their natural stimuli. This class of repellents can be attributed to IR3535, in which the natural amino acid beta-alanine is unpleasant to most insects. Various citrus essential oils can also be used as a substitute, but they are all inferior to IR3535 in their effectiveness.
Replicates of all kinds are much safer insecticides for both the environment and a person. However, they can have a negative impact on the flora and fauna: it is believed that the use of diethyltolumide, which tourists are generously cooked, led to a decrease in the number of snakes in the tropical forests of South America.