What colors are not fruits and vegetables! And each of them has its bright and unique taste. But so far the fruits are not ripe, almost all of them are similar to each other: green, solid and sour. How does the ripening process occurs during which the taste and color of fruit change?
So, at first, the fruits have a green color due to the large amount of chlorophyll contained in them - a green pigment involved in the photosynthesis process. At some point inside the fruit, gas production begins ethylene - natural vegetable hormone.
This is interesting: Gas ethylene is produced by the fruit itself, not a plant. That is why torn green fruits teach the property. This feature of fruits and vegetables occurred as if the way during commercial transportations, when the fruits were still ripened during transportation.
Ethylene affects the receptors of the fetus, which, in turn, activate certain genes. In the fruit, enzymes begin to produce: β-amylase, which splits starch to sugars, making fruit not so sour, and Pectinase, affecting On the structure of the fetus, softening it. At the same time, chlorophyll is splitting hydrolases (hydrolytic enzymes), which is why the fruit loses the green color associated with immaturity. From this point on, fruits and vegetables acquire the usual color for them: part of the pigments, hidden before this moment chlorophyll, is revealed, plus new ones are synthesized. Two main culprit fruit color - it's Carotenoids responsible for orange and yellow colors, and Anthociana, giving the fetus red and blue colors .
This is what the number of complex chemical processes occurs in some small grape, before it falls to our mouth.