What is the first and second cosmic speeds?

We - earthlings - accustomed that they are firmly standing on Earth and do not fly away, and if we throw some item in the air, it will definitely fall to the surface. All wines created by our planet gravitational field that twists space-time and causes an abandoned, for example, to fly on a curved trajectory and cross the earth.

The gravitational field creates around itself any object, and in the earth, which has an impressive mass, this field is quite strong. That is why powerful multi-stage cosmic missiles are built, capable of accelerated spacecraft to high speeds, which are needed to overcome the gravity of the planet. The value of these speeds and got the name first and second cosmic speeds.

The concept of the first cosmic speed is very simple - this is the speed that needs to be given to the physical object so that it, moving in parallel to the Space Body, could not fall on it, but at the same time remained on a permanent orbit.

The formula for finding the first space speed does not differ in difficulty: where V is the first cosmic speed; G - gravitational constant; m - weight of the object; R - the radius of the object;

Try to substitute the necessary values ​​in the formula (G - the gravitational constant is always equal to 6, 67; Earth weight is 5, 97 · 10 24 kg, and its radius is 6371 km) and find the first space speed of our planet.

As a result, we will get a speed equal to 7, 9 km / s. But why, moving at such a speed, the spacecraft will not fall on the ground or fly into the outer space? It will not fly into space due to the fact that this speed is still too small to overcome the gravitational field, but it will fall on the ground. But only because of the high speed, he will "leave" from the collision with the Earth, continuing at the same time its "fall" in a circular orbit caused by the sparking of space.

This is interesting: on the same principle "works" and the International Space Station. The cosmonauts on it are carried out all the time in a constant and incessant fall, which does not end tragically due to the high speed of the station itself, which is why it stably "misses" by the Earth. The speed value is calculated based on the height of the orbit on which the station flies.

But what should I do if we want the spacecraft to leave our planet's limits and was not dependent on its gravitational field? Discover it to the second cosmic speed! So, the second cosmic speed is the minimum speed that must be given to the physical object so that it overcomes the gravitational attraction of the heavenly body and left it closed orbit.

The value of the second cosmic speed also depends on the mass and radius of the celestial body, so it will be its for each object. For example, to overcome the gravitational attraction of the Earth, the spacecraft must be dialing the minimum speed of 11.2 km / s, Jupiter - 61 km / s, the Sun - 617, 7 km / s.

The second cosmic speed (V2) can be calculated using the following formula:

where v is the first cosmic speed; G - gravitational constant; m - mass of the object; R - the radius of the object;

But if the first space rate of the object under study is known (v1), the task is facilitated at times, and the second cosmic speed (V2) is quickly in the formula:

it's interesting: the second cosmic formula black holes more 299 792 km / c , that is More speed light. That is why nothing, even the light can not break out of its limits.

In addition to the first and second comic velocities, there are the third and fourth, to achieve which you need in order to go beyond our solar system and the galaxy, respectively.

illustration: Bigstockphoto | 3dsculptor