A large role in the modern world is played by storing information that year from year to become more compact. The main storage cell is a transistor that can take values 0 or 1. Recent years there is a constant decrease in transistors, which allows you to store more information with smaller storage sizes.
But close is the moment when the current storage technologies have achieved the limit of their capabilities. Modern transistors have a length of 20 nm (nanometers), and according to the forecasts of scientists the limit of their capabilities will come at dimensions of 5 nm - it was then that the tunnel effect will cease to operate, because A floating shutter will be observed electron leakage, which will not allow the transistor to maintain its value.
This is interesting: one nanometer is one billion part meter.
In search of replacing transistors to smaller components, scientists have come to the conclusion that information can be stored in atoms.
In the study of metals of the Lantanoid family, physics noted that some of these substances atoms were able to maintain their magnetic state for some of these substances with certain parameters. And since any element can save its magnetic state, you can write a bit of information on it, giving it the value "zero" or "one".
Falling by the idea of storing information at the atomic level, specialists soon discovered the most appropriate candidate - a chemical atom called Golmia.
It turned out that if at a temperature of - 269 ° C on an atom located on a dielectric from magnesium oxide, to act as an electrical impulse, then you can set a new magnetic state. Analogue "1" and "0" is the change of the magnetic pole of an atom to the North and South. The transmission of an electrical pulse atom occurs with a scanning tunnel microscope - a complex device, which is based on a quantum tunnel effect.
But only a little record on atom information - it is also necessary to read it. This task successfully copes the sensor consisting of one iron atom. The particle, being placed at a certain distance from the Holmian atom, can read its magnetic states, determining the magnetic pole.
In the experiment, scientists from IBM successfully recorded on the bit of information by two atoms, and then read it using one sensor. It can be said that since these are the era of storing information at the atomic level is open. But hardly such systems will be distributed in the near future: the parameters of its operation are temperature and technical - too complex to work outside the laboratory walls. The prospects for storing information in atoms are impressive: according to calculations, similar to atomic storage B 2, 5 cm 2 can accommodate up to 80, 000 GB of information.
Illustration: Depositphotos | Huhli13