Huns. Perhaps no other tribe of the barbarians did not inspire such fear of the nations of the West as they. Hunnes appeared literally from nowhere and, having done the way through the Hungarian plains, they entered Gallia, finding close to the northern borders of Rome. Another branch of their branch at the same time crossed the Caucasus and ruined Armenia. And, in the end, it was the Gunnian leaders led by the leader Attila became the very drop that pushed the Roman Empire to death, thereby inspired his tribe forever.
Gunns were nomads from the steppes of Central Asia, but their exact origin still remains a mystery. It is often said that they were the same famous Hunn, who lived to the west of China and were very annoyed by the last of their permanent raids, forcing the buildings of numerous protective structures, which in the future merged into a single wall. But this version today causes a lot of disputes. Its adherents are confident that the separation of Huns and Hunna is the result of the historical confusion, which arose due to significant differences between the Chinese branch and the one that went to the West. But none of the hypotheses of the origin of the Huns today is not fully proven, and their supporters do not have convincing material evidence of their rightful. However, even if it is true, then, most likely, Hunna was only one of the peoples, which later strengthens in the so-called Hun confederation.
In Roman sources, they first mention the historian Tacit in 91 of our era, telling about the wild militant people living in the region around the Caspian Sea. Other historians of that time, the Huns were depicted as a wild tribe of dirty and uneducated savages, which are no different from the cattle, which they graze. However, this opinion has changed very quickly. For example, Ammonian Marcellin and Prisc (lateant historians) depicted them in much better light. Prosh in general at all was the frequent guest by Attila and lived for a long time in the Gunnskiy villages, describing the lifestyle of these people.
Formation of Gunnaya statehood
If the mystery of the origin of the Gunnov still remains undisclosed, then much more about the foundation of the first Gunnsky state. This state created his state on the lands of inner Mongolia, the south of Siberia, Altai and Transbaikalia in about the third century BC. e. His founder, and at the same time, the first "official" ruler of the Gunnov was the king fog. However, to truly unite the wild tribes in a certain semblance of a confederation with the Supreme leader, his son Modhe managed, during the reign of which they were completely assimilated and turned into one ethnos. It is noteworthy that the latter did not inherit the power from the Father, and she stabbed the terrible force of the elder and took his place.
Of all activities, Gunns preferred war and cattle breeding. And the war was in priority. Hunnam was not known writing, so there was not a single artistic or literary product of that pore. But in military business, the Huns were very knowledgeable. Despite the low level of culture, they were capable not only to successfully adopt various military technologies captured by enemies, but to improve them.
In the original place of the formation of the Gunnsky state of free lands for the descendants of the king, less and less, so soon the confederation was broken down, and the components of its peoples were divided. One part practically remained on the spot, after moving only a little closer to China's borders, and the second held the way to unknown Western lands. And, ultimately, it was them that they managed to achieve unprecedented power and perpetuate themselves in the chronicles.
Exodus Gunnov west
The path from East to the West lasted two centuries. Rows of the Gunnov were constantly replenished due to the assimilation of other nomadic tribes, which they met on the way. Later, the Gunns were also assieved in Eastern Europe, seduced by her extensive fertile lands and the lack of competitors who could represent any serious danger. But in the 4th century, this relative obligance came the end when Europe covered the great resettlement of peoples.
The invasion of the Huns in Western Europe began after the militant neighbors of the Romans Goth, leaving attempts to move to the West, went to conquer the Black Sea regions. After all, the Roman Empire, although it was not so powerful as before, but still successfully tested European barbarians from their borders and did not give them to advance on to the West. Goths quickly reached the Northern Black Sea and Caucasus. It was here on their way and gunnes met and two people were collided by foreheads.
It should be noted that the culture of the Huns and was ready been very related. The similarity was so pronounced that the goths initially accepted the Huns for almost relatives, only more wild, militant and primitive. Their chronicles even put forward the assumption that the Gunnes occurred from the three Gothic sorcerers who were expelled from the tribe to the eastern deserts and came together there with evil spirits.
According to the Gothic historian of Jordan, this tribe was "malvory, disgusting and sun packs", and it was possible to count it to the human race only due to the fact that his representatives had a similarity of human speech. But be that as it may, and the new opponent turned out to be goths not on the teeth. And already in 375, the Gothic worm of the Gothic leader Germanic was completely defeated by the leader of Huns by the Balamber. Therefore, without meeting more serious resistance, by the end of the IV century AD. Huns have already firmly settled on the Okolica Roman Empire.
Invasion of Huns in the Roman Empire
At that time, the Roman Empire was already actually divided into Western and eastern parts, each of which was ruled by his emperor. And the relationship between them, to put it mildly, was not very friendly. The leaders of the Huns quickly oriented in a situation and showing enviable foresight, turned it into their favor.
It all started with the fact that with the V century, relations between Constantinople and Rome were glowed to the limit, and the first even began to threaten the permafrost of the war. The commander of the Western Rome Aition, which was then almost the best of the leader of Gunnov Rua, did not find a better decision, how to attract this tribe to protect his country. Seeing such a formidable force, the emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire turned his campaign and hastily retraced. With the Gunns, it was decided to conclude an agreement on friendship and nonsense. We reinforced this union by exchanging hostages. The leader Hunov himself sent his nephews to Rome, one of which was young attila.
And although Roman knew it to his victory, in fact she underestimated the trick of the Vladyka Gunnov, for which he soon was heavily paid. Rome rulers were confident that they could raise off the leader of the Varvarov so that they would love Rome with all the soul and became a faithful ally in the fight against the eastern neighbor. The best teachers put to the young barbarians to civilize them and ensure the most luxurious life in the hope forever tie to Rome forever.
Attila began the best of the students. Roman customs were displaced, but he showed the most lively interest to the sciences. As a smart and attentive student, Atillas quickly noticed all the peculiarities of warring war with an imperial army and learned the weaknesses of the Romans. When it was time to return home, he already understood how to break the invincible Rome.
Climbing emperor Hunov
After the death of the leader Rua (434 years), the Brothers Attila and Bled were held at the head of the Huns. Attila at that time was already a mature experienced commander and a state husband, therefore, having received power, he actively started expanding the state, turning his attention to the East.
The borders of the Eastern Empire were then made easy prey, and the Gunnes began a full-scale offensive. In the summer of 441, Attila and Bled crossed the border regions and plundered the province of Illyria, which at that time were very rich Roman shopping centers. In 445, after the death of Brother Attila, it becomes a full-fledged ruler of the almost formed Gunno empire (they say that the Bled went to the light not without the help of his relative, although official accusations to put forward, of course, no one died). He continues the invasion of the east, robbery and destroying Roman cities, and stops literally 20 miles from Constantinople.
Attila's campaign was over that in 447, the Romans had to conclude a humiliating world with Huns, according to which they had to pay the leader of a huge tribute to gold. It should be noted that Attila showed an amazing peacefulness here, since nothing bothered to move further and completely erase Constantinople from the face of the earth. And even a failed attempt, ordered by Feodosius, did not change the mood attis. He had enough monetary compensation and humiliation of the emperor.
To 451 n. E., Attila Empire extended the regions of modern Russia down through Hungary and through Germany to France. He received a regular tribute from Rome and at the same time did not forget to make raids on Roman territory, continuing to rob and destroy provincial cities.
Fall of the Atilla Empire
If, during the fight against the eastern Roman Empire, Attila retained at least the visibility of good relations with the West, then after the actual surrender of Constantinople, the leader of the Huns decided to subordinate the West as well as the East and for this planned first to destroy the war-torn war with the German tribes of Gallia, and then and conquer the remaining territories of the Western Roman Empire. But it was not possible to implement these plan.
Feeling yourself with a sufficiently powerful (and, most likely, having received information about the defeat of the Romans of Romans in Africa in the war with vandals) Attila began an offensive. At first he tried to negotiate with Rome and in exchange for his loyalty demanded the hand of the Princess of Honoria and half of the empire as a dowry. It is not surprising that the parties could not agree, and in 451, the famous battle in the catalaunoic fields, called the Battle of Peoples, occurred in Gaul. The Gunns fell together with their allies of hepids and other German tribes, and on the side of the Romans fought posges, which themselves had already suffered from Huns themselves. In this battle Attile, his former friend and mentor of Flaviy Azias opposed. The cruel battle never ended with a victory by any of the parties. Two commander lost in battle of almost all warriors and remained at their own - aietia managed to reflect the invasion of the Gunno king, but raids on the Western provinces continued until the death of the latter in 453.
The end of the greatest from the Gun leaders was completely inglorious. According to the information of the lateantic historian of the Prisk (and its information can be considered reliable, since the smart and educated chronicle and the diplomat quickly found a common language with Attila and lived with him for a courtyard for a long time), taking a new young wife, Atilla "celebrated the first marriage night with too Large wine. " Resting after love jeads and excessive libations, he fell asleep, lying on his back, and at that time he had a "tide of extra blood to the head." Be atilla in consciousness, he would be separated by one nasal bleeding, but in this case the blood flowed into the throat and killed him.
After the death of Attila, his sons began to rule the empire. But not possessing the terrible temper of his father and even by the Tolik of his mind, they quickly lost control over the state, which gradually began to break down. However, the Western Roman Empire, west, weared by the bloody war was also not able to recover from the strike and after several years later the great Rome fell and was looted by vandals.
Illustration: Depositphotos - © Denistopal