The poisoning was one of the most popular secret murders in the past. After successfully perfect poisoning, approximate victims sometimes did not know whether death was occurring in natural reasons, or thanks to the actions of enemy spies. And they acted on rarity insidious: sometimes they could drink wine from one with the victim of the Cup, and then imperceptibly omit the finger into the liquid, which was hidden by poison. In the case when an important person suddenly began to feel bad, it was necessary to act quickly. But even against the poisons of animal origin, which was used in the old days, there was no chance of confrontation from the then medicine. And sometimes strange funds acted as an antidote.
Irazar or impetuous stone is a foreign body that has formed in the stomach of a ruminant animal. The rayar stone consists of tightly flooded fibers of plant origin and hair. Strange, but it was this concrement that occupied a special place in ancient medicine.
It is not known why it was the idle stone stone of Lekari to be considered a panacea almost from all possible diseases - perhaps a happy coincidence of the circumstances, a person accidentally eaten hoarsear and recovered, because of what the healer who watched him did the wrong conclusion about the benefits of this dubious means.
Rumors about the wonderful properties of the cavities went from ancient India, from where they spread to countries of Malaya Asia, and then came to Europe. It was believed that the rayar stone protects against curses, damage, various diseases, such as plague or pumping, and, of course, is considered a universal medicine from poisoning. Stones were concluded in precious metals and wore as amulets, and in severe cases they swallowed.
Considering that the cost of the animal in the ancient times or the times of the Middle Ages was huge, it is possible to imagine how expensive was the rayarone stone - sometimes it was necessary to destroy not one dozen goats or cows to find the desired tool.
In some cases, of course, the self-compliance effect helped, but most of the owner of the caviar was forced to make sure the ineffectiveness of the ancient medicine.
Mitridat VI Evupator ruled state Pont, located on the territory of Malaya Asia, in the first half of the first century BC. This antique statesman entered the story as a brilliant military leader and wise politician. But his contemporaries were especially strongly noted by the brilliant mind of the last great king of ancient Asia.
One of the activities of Mithridate was the study of poisons, their actions on the human body, as well as creating an effective antidote - probably, Mithridat, confident in his duty and successful board, wanted to protect themselves from sudden poisoning. The truth of the searches of the antidote took place by no means humanely - dozens of captives captured in the wars, the king and its court doctors were exposed to all the poisons at that time, trying to find a method of healing. After hundreds and thousands of experiments, a wonderful antidote, which includes 54 components that kept in strict secrecy, was found. Every day, Mithridate with small portions took his antidote, which, it was likely to be the mixing of the most dangerous poisons to be mixed with various plants. The effectiveness of the treatment of the king "was lucky to" check in old age. Powerful Rome after three long wars with the Pontic State was able to crush the army of Mithridate, and then the older ruler, hitting the environment and not wanting to give up the enemy, took the poison of the snake. But to the surprise of the nearest associates of the king, the poison did not work - the antidote, all his life received by Mithridate, really worked, and the king of their own example proved the truthfulness of aphorism "Everything that does not kill us make us stronger". However, Mithridate still managed to leave this world - he asked his servant to chop his sword.
After the death of the king, many rulers and Lekari wanted to find out the composition of the wonderful antidote, but, as it will later find out, only the Romans managed to achieve certain success. In the ancient treatises on medicine since then, mentions are often found in the name "Mithridat" - in honor of the Pontic Tsar. It remains only to guess how many more prisoners were subjected to monstrous experiments with antique healers in search of the correct composition of Mithridate.
In the fact that the unicorns really dwell, people believed until the 18th century. In the days of the Middle Ages and the era of the Renaissance, the horn of this mythical animal was considered a universal means to combat poisons. The popularity of the horns of the unicorn was promoted by medieval alchemists who added this tool into their decoctions and sold the richest people of the time.
The royal palaces of Europe were looking for a horns of unicorns in pharmacians and alchemists around the world, offering enjoying huge wealth. Many rulers added chips from the horns in their drink or food.
The legend of the unicorn collapsed only in the 18th century, when European travelers learned about the existence of Narvalov - mammals living in the Arctic Ocean and North Atlantic. It turned out that the tissue of these animals, the Europeans considered the magic horns of unicorns.
Freshwater and river mollusks in response to entering the sink of the foreign body, envelop its layer of a special substance, which, frozen, turns into pearls. Pearls are known to people with deep antiquity, and in many countries the attitude towards him was correct - it was used as a decoration.
But Lekari in ancient China and Egypt for a long time used a crowded pearls as a component for anticiries. At least, the victim of poisoning did not get worse from this.
So it's time to remember the old good mitridate. It is believed that it was based on it and was made by the Roman hectares of an antidote that received the name of the course. Emperor Nero Androm Emperor, who lived in the first century AD, managed to reproduce (at least, the Romans believed in it) the antidote of Mithridate and even improve it by adding a few more components to the mixture - opium, geogyt, beaver jet and meat of viper. It may seem like Androma selected substances for the antidote by random falling, but, according to the information that reached us, all additional components for the terrician were carefully studied. The improvement of Teriak was subsequently engaged in one of the most famous doctors of the entire Roman History of Galen.
This is interesting: Despite the fact that Galen got into such a dubious idea as a universal antidote, his contribution to the development of medicine is huge. Galen had an outstanding mind, traveled a lot and gathered a huge amount of information on medicine. The first in history suggested that the brain controls the work of the body with the help of the nervous system, and also gave a detailed description of the work of the cardiovascular system. He was a doctor of several Roman emperors and Roman nobility. Historians believe that the heyday of Islamic medicine of the early Middle Ages has become possible due to the translation of the works of Galen to Arabic. On the genius of this Roman of Greek origin, you can judge at least for the fact that the doctors students studied the works of Galen until the 19th century inclusive!
Probably, the composition of Teriaka did not hold in such a secret as the drug of Mithridate, therefore, in the future, both European and eastern scientists continued to work on it in the days of Middle Ages. Interest in Terica was mainly maintained thanks to his prestigious - after all, they used members of the ruling families of the states who wanted to be like Roman emperors.
Each famous leakage, ascribed to a specific state, wanted to create his best and unique theory. Over time, the number of terricians has become so great that the very original recipe of Androma, who managed to restore the composition of the Mithridate, was lost. Among all competing terricians, Venetian - probably, the medieval lacarons really managed to choose the composition of the components that the pain and illusion dulp. Dorganiza and rarity components (beaver and serpentine meat, poison of scorpion and various snakes, etc.) of the medicinal product made the terrician fabulously expensive, so the duty of its use, as did this king of Ponta, could not have any speech. That is why the terrais turned out to be useless with really serious poisoning, the means of which he was positioned first.
The composition of the French teriaka, who was considered rather cheap in one time compared to other teriats
The developed medicine became, the less in the archives there are references to Teriaka, and in the second half of the 19th century it is finally forgotten.
Illustration: Depositphotos | Michalldwiczak