The first began to dress up the Christmas tree in Germany. According to the legend for the appearance of this tradition, we must be grateful to Martin Luther, an outstanding German reformer. On the eve of Christmas in 1513, he, as the legend says, returned home and admired the heaven with his stars. It seemed the impression that they sparkle on the branches of trees. Reaching home, Martin Luther decided to reproduce seen, so I put a small Christmas tree on the table, dressed up with candles and the star, which was placed on the top as a reminder of the Bethlehem star, indicating the Bible path to the place of birth of Jesus.
It is widely known that in Central Europe of the XVI century, there was a tradition to dress up a small beech trees with pears, plums and apples that were pre-cooked in honey, as well as forest nuts. On Christmas Eve, the beech was decorated in the center of the festive table.
About a century in Switzerland and Germany, not only deciduous trees, but coniferous appeared on Christmas feasts. The main requirement that has been presented to them has concerned the magnitude. The tree should have been miniature. First, a small Christmas tree decorated with apples and sweets was made to hang to the ceiling, and only over time the tradition appeared to install a large tree in the living room.
From the XVIII to the XIX century, the tradition of dressing the Christmas tree went outside of Germany and passed on in England, Denmark, Holland, Czech Republic and Austria. Thanks to the development of emigration, the immigrants from Germany taught to decorate the Christmas trees and Americans. At first, fruits, candles and a variety of sweets were used for this, but over time the custom appeared to dress up Christmas trees with cardboard toys, wool and wax, and later from the glass.
In Russia, the New Year trees came thanks to Peter the first. He, being another very young man, was visiting his friends in Germany, where she saw a strange-dressed tree with candy and apples, and received very pleasant impressions from this spectacle. After Peter climbed the throne, the fun Christmas trees on the manner seen in Europe appeared in Russia. On the central streets and the houses of noble people set decorations from coniferous trees and their branches.
Over time, when Peter the First did not become, everyone forgot about the new way. The Christmas tree became a popular Christmas attribute only a century later. In 1817, princess Charlotte appeared at the Russian court, which became the wife of Prince Nikolai Pavlovich. On its initiative, a tradition appeared in Russia to decorate bouquets from the branches of the Christmas table. In 1819, the first festive Christmas tree appeared in Anichkov Palace, which was influenced by Nikolai Pavlovich, and 1852 was the year of demonstration of the first dressed up in public. She appeared in the Ekaterininsky premises (subsequently in the Moscow) station in St. Petersburg. After that, there was a splash of popularity of Christmas trees. Rich Russians began to write down dear European decorations and hold festive matinees for children.
New Year's tree showed Christian postulates. Fruits, sweets and toys, which she decorated, were a symbol of gifts brought by newborne Jesus. Candles served as a reminder of how the place of stay of the Holy Family was covered. In addition, a star was conquered on the top of a spruce, who performed the role of the symbol of the Bethlehem star, which appeared in the sky at the time of Christ's birth and indicating the road to him. All this contributed to the conversion of the Christmas tree into a Christmas symbol.
World War II - a period of refusal to decorate the Christmas tree, as from the enemy tradition, which came from hostile Germany. Nicholas II introduced a ban on it, which was canceled after the October Revolution. The public Christmas tree of Soviet times was first established on December 31, 1917 in the territory of the Mikhailovsky Artillery School in St. Petersburg.
Another ban on the use of a dressed Christmas tree as a festive symbol occurred for 1926, when this tradition was named by the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Anti-Soviet. Active anti-religious work was carried out, within which it was, in particular, is forbidden to celebrate Christmas. Therefore, the use of any Christmas attributes could not be a speech.
However, by 1935, the festive Christmas tree is again experiencing rebirth. On December 28, a note about organizing the installation of a New Year tree for children appeared in the True newspaper. This proposal proceeded from Posyssheva, the Second Secretary of the Central Committee of the Committee, and received support for Stalin.
On the eve of 1938, a 15-meter Christmas tree was installed in the House of Unions, decorated with 10 thousand toys, which became the central element of the children's festive matinee. Since then, such events became the traditional and chief Christmas tree of the country, it was the Christmas tree in the house of unions. Since 1976, this title has passed to the Christmas tree installed in the Kremlin. Being initially a Christmas symbol, a dressed up tree gradually turned into a New Year attribute. The tradition of decorating the Christmas tree fruit and sweets was also gradually transformed. Christmas toys have become a reflection of the era. They were depicted pioneers, tinted mountains, and portraits of members of the Politburo, and during the Second World War appeared toys with weapons, paratroopers and sanitation dogs. Later, snowflakes with sickle and hammer, airplanes and cars depicted on them came to replace pictures of military topics. In Khrushchev times, corn cobs, tractors and hockey players appeared on the Christmas trees, and after a while - fabulous characters and everything connected with space.
Today there are many diverse styles of Christmas tree decoration. The traditional option is to dress up a Christmas tree with colored glass toys, tinsel and electric garlands. In the last century there was a transition from natural trees to artificial, which sometimes very realistically imitate living trees. Some of them are stylized and do not assume the use of additional decorations. There is also a fashion for certain color solutions of the Christmas decor. The tree can be blue, red, gold, silver or any other color. In fashion, laconicity and minimalism. Constantly used to decorate the New Year tree of garlands with lights, however, it is often no longer electric light bulbs, but LEDs.