200 muscles are included in the work with just one step. The heart - the most resilient muscle in the body - works constantly. Muscles grow and train, tons of sports literature have been written about them. We will tell you the most interesting.
1. How many muscles are there in total?
In total, the human body has from 640 to 850 muscles. During a simple walk, the body uses up to 200 muscles. Muscle tissue is 15% denser and heavier than adipose tissue, so a trained person can outweigh a full, but unsportsmanlike person of the same height. Muscles account for an average of 40% of body weight.
2. Most-most muscles
The most hardy human muscle is the heart, the shortest is the stirrup (it strains the eardrum in the ear). Its length is 1.27 mm. The longest muscle in the human body is the tailor muscle. The fastest muscle is the blinking muscle. There are different opinions about which muscle of the body is the strongest. It is often said that the most powerful muscle is the tongue, but the tongue is made up of several muscles, so this view is false. The chewing muscles are very strong (the force of their pressure can reach 100 kilograms), as well as the calves and gluteal muscles.
3. Such different muscles
Human muscles are not the same. Therefore, they need to be trained in different ways, and the recovery time for different muscle groups is different. The triceps are the fastest to recover, and the back muscles are the slowest. This must be taken into account when training, muscles need rest no less than load, since the growth of muscle fibers occurs due to the supercompensation effect. Full muscle recovery occurs only 48 hours after intense exertion.
4. Muscle endurance
Endurance is the ability of a muscle to maintain performance over time. The most hardy muscle of the human body, as we have already said, is the heart. According to doctors' estimates, the "safety margin" of the average heart is not less than 100 years. Muscles begin to fatigue when they run out of glycogen, and fatigue is also explained by the large amount of calcium in the muscles. It used to be thought that lactic acid was the main culprit for fatigue. At Columbia University, a study was conducted in which mice swam for three weeks daily, and cyclists trained for three days. It turned out that after exercise, the chemical structure of the ryanodine receptor, which is responsible for muscle contraction, underwent significant changes - a gap appeared in the cell membrane through which calcium was seeping into muscle cells.
5. Muscles and emotions
It is known that the movement of facial muscles is directly related to human emotions. At the beginning of the last century, the Russian scientist Ivan Sikorsky compiled a classification of facial expressions: the muscles around the eyes are responsible for the expression of mental phenomena, the muscles around the mouth are for the expression of acts of will, and feelings are expressed by all the muscles of the face. In 2011, scientists were able to discover that human facial expressions appear long before his birth. Even during the prenatal period, the child is already able to move the facial muscles, smile, raise his eyebrows in surprise or frown. Facial muscles make up 25% of the total number of muscles, while smiling 17 muscle groups are involved, during anger or crying - 43. One of the best ways to keep smooth skin on your face is kissing. They work from 29 to 34 muscle groups.
6. Muscles and genes
Amazingly, muscle training has an impact not only on the person himself, but also on his genes. Modifications take place in them, which further help muscle fibers to be ready for new loads. In order to prove or disprove this, scientists from the University of Aarhus recruited a focus group of 20 volunteers and conducted a 20-minute aerobic exercise with them on a stationary bike. After the study, a biopsy of the quadriceps was taken from the subjects to see how the genes had changed in their cells. It turned out that exercise activates genes related to muscles. This is because cells retain DNA using methyl groups. When removed, the gene's information is converted into enzymes and proteins that are needed for calorie burning, muscle gain, and oxygen consumption. After the experiment, the number of methyl groups in all study participants decreased - that is, the muscles adapted to the increase in metabolism.
7. Muscle and Telepathy
An ordinary person is unable to establish control over all the muscles of the body, therefore, unconscious muscle contractions can serve as an indicator for knowledgeable people of hidden thoughts or planned actions. High-level psychologists and "telepaths" can use knowledge about these processes. Wolf Messing, one of the most famous telepaths, explained his phenomenal abilities not with magic, but with a thorough knowledge of the work of human muscles. He said: "This is not mind reading, but, so to speak, " muscle reading "... When a person thinks tensely about something, the brain cells transmit impulses to all the muscles of the body."
8. Palmar muscle
Only one in six people on earth has long palmar muscles on both arms. Some have them only on one of the hands. These muscle fibers are responsible for the release of claws in animals. It is clear to a person that such a function is not needed. The palmar muscles are thus a rudiment used by surgeons, if necessary, as a material for muscle transplantation.
9. Muscle and chocolate
Ironically, one of the healthiest foods for the heart and muscles in general is dark chocolate. Research from Wayne University in Detroit has shown the effect of epicatechin, a substance in dark chocolate, on mitochondrial growth in muscle cells. Scientists at the University of Aquila also conducted a study in which subjects were given one hundred grams of chocolate for 15 days and their blood pressure was measured. During the experiment, people have normalized blood pressure, improved blood circulation. Accordingly, moderate consumption of dark chocolate can be considered as prevention of heart disease and atherosclerosis.
10. Loss of muscle
Muscles don't last forever. After 40 years, they begin to be actively burned, a person begins to lose from 2 to 3 percent of muscle tissue per year, after 60 years - up to 5%. Therefore, training in adulthood is no less important than in youth.