1. Today more than 4 thousand minerals are known. Every year, several dozen new mineral species are discovered and several are “closed” - they prove that such a mineral does not exist.
2. All gems are mined by hand.
3. On average, one carat of emerald mined in Colombia accounts for 20 tons of processed soil.
4. Diamond is the only one of all gemstones that consists of one chemical element - carbon.
5. The amount of minerals is constantly decreasing, so the price of jewelry will always rise.
6. There is a special pomegranate (ant) deposits of which can be found only near anthills. Crystals of this mineral are found only near ant nests. When building a nest, insects throw crystals of this mineral to the surface. These ants live in the USA in a place called "4 corners".
7. Many people mistakenly believe that a diamond is only colorless. In fact, any precious mineral can envy the color palette of a diamond. But nowadays, not all colored diamonds have a natural color. Many stones are artificially colored. This is due to their rarity.
8. Before the invention of the Mohs scale (mineralogical scale of hardness), stones were determined by color. So all the green stones became emeralds, the red ones became rubies, etc.
9. A real emerald is more expensive than a diamond.
10.95% of all rubies are artificially refined. Only truly large and perfectly beautiful stones can avoid such a fate.
11. Ruby and sapphire are one and the same. The difference between these stones is only in color.
12. 90% of all mined diamonds are used for industrial purposes, and only 10% ends up on jewelry counters.
13. Alexandrite was named after Tsarevich Alexander, the future Emperor Alexander II.
14. Aquamarine and emerald are one and the same, just an admixture of different chemical elements gives different colors. Chromium makes the emerald green, and aluminum turns aquamarine blue.
15. Topaz has a bad habit of fading and discoloration in the sun. Therefore, jewelry containing this mineral is not recommended to be worn on the beach.
16. There is a "red emerald". It is actually a red variety of beryl, Bixbit. It is an extremely rare mineral and is found only in Utah (USA).
17. Pink topaz is the rarest colored variety of this mineral. It is pink topaz that is most often counterfeited.
18. Some minerals are very dangerous. For example, charoite may turn out to be "mini-Chernobyl", and cinnabar "broken by a mercury thermometer."
19. Almost all emeralds have cracks and inclusions (according to various sources, 90–95%). But this does not reduce their cost, because the mineral is assessed by color and saturation.
20. Kremlin stars are made of ruby glass.