10 strangest things in the universe - interesting facts for Sunday night The more we look at the sun and stars, the more weirdness we see. Even the space itself is perplexing. Recent studies show that the universe is 150 billion light years across, and the cosmos itself is about 13.7 billion years old. From superfast stars to the nature of things, we've compiled ten of the strangest and most mysterious objects outside of our little world especially for you.
10. Moving stars
If you've ever lay on the southern coast of Crimea in August, or just gazed at the night sky dotted with myriads of stars, you've probably seen shooting stars. Although in fact these are meteors that burn (or do not burn) in the Earth's atmosphere. Tell your child that the stars don't fall - and destroy his childhood dream. In fact, there are shooting stars. One in a hundred million.
In 2005, astronomers discovered the first "moving star" that was moving through the galaxy at a speed ten times faster than usual - about 900 kilometers per second. We have speculations about what is launching these rare stars into deep space, but we are not sure. It could be a supernova explosion or a supermassive black hole.
9. Black holes
“Curiouser and curiouser, ” Alice thought as she traveled through Wonderland. Astronomers don't know what could be weirder than a black hole. We devoted a whole article to these beauties and the consequences of their collision with the solar system.
Nothing can leave the gravitational boundary of a black hole - the so-called event horizon - neither matter nor light. Astrophysicists think black holes form dying stars with masses of 3-20 suns. At the centers of galaxies, black holes can exceed the mass of the sun by 10, 000 or even 18 billion times. And they grow larger, sucking in gas, dust, stars and smaller black holes.
As for medium-sized black holes, their existence, oddly enough, is a big question.
The sun revolves around its axis about once every 25 days, gradually distorting the magnetic field. But imagine a dying star, heavier than the sun, collapsing and contracting into a lump of matter only a few tens of kilometers in diameter. As a whirling ballerina spins faster and faster, clutching her arms and throwing them out to the sides, this gesture also spins the neutron star along with its magnetic field.
Calculations show that such objects have a temporary magnetic field, which is a million billion times stronger than the earth's. That's enough to destroy your credit card hundreds of thousands of kilometers away and roll atoms into ultra-thin cylinders.
Take a coin out of your pocket and hold it in front of you for a second. And you know what? About 150 billion tiny and practically weightless particles called neutrinos just flew through it as if it didn't exist.
Scientists have found that they are born in stars (living or exploding), nuclear materials and during the Big Bang. Elementary particles have three "flavors" and what is most interesting, they disappear when they please.
And since neutrinos sometimes interact with "normal" matter like water and mineral oil, scientists hope they can use them as a kind of revolutionary telescope to look into the most distant corners of the universe, hidden by dust and gas.
6. Dark Matter
If you take all the energy and matter in space, bake into a cake and split it, the result will surprise you.
All galaxies, stars, planets, comets, asteroids, dust, gas and particles make up only 4 percent of the known universe. Most of what we call "matter" - roughly 23 percent of the universe - is invisible to the human eye and instruments.
Scientists can see the gravitational effects of dark matter on stars and galaxies, but are frantically looking for a way to detect it directly with their instruments. They believe that along with neutrinos, there may be more massive elusive particles.
5. Dark Energy
Here's what will actually surprise anyone on the planet - and especially scientists - is dark energy. Continuing the pie analogy, dark energy occupies 73 percent of the known universe. It seems to penetrate the entire cosmos and propels galaxies further and further apart at tremendous speeds.
Some cosmologists believe that this expansion over several trillions of years will turn the Milky Way into an "island of the universe" from where other galaxies will not be visible.
Others believe that the rate of growth is so high that it will lead to a "Great Split." In this case, the force of dark energy will overcome gravity and separate the stars from the planets, the forces that hold the particles together, the molecules from these particles, and ultimately the atom and subatomic particles. Fortunately, humanity, most likely, will not see this cataclysm.
Despite the fact that we live on a planet, she and others like them remain one of the most significant mysteries in the universe. For example, there is no theory that fully explains how planets - especially rocky ones - formed from gas and dust around stars. The fact that most of the planet is hiding under its surface is also not explained. Powerful tools could shed light on the latter, but we can barely study the planets of even our solar system.
The first planet outside our solar system was only discovered in 1999, and it wasn't until 2008 that we got our first decent image of an exoplanet. And recently, scientists have discovered the smallest exoplanet at the moment.
The force that makes the stars burn, the planets stay together and form orbits, with all this remains one of the most common and weakest in space.
Scientists have calculated almost all the equations and models that describe and predict gravity, but its source outside of matter remains an absolute mystery.
Some believe that incredibly small particles called gravitons are responsible for gravity, but they can be detected in principle - the big question.
Nevertheless, there is an active hunt for large disturbances in the Universe, which are called gravitational waves. If they are discovered (presumably from the merging of black holes), Albert Einstein's concept that the universe has a fabric of space-time will find solid ground.
There is plenty of matter and energy in the entire Universe, but only in some places of cosmic diversity there are sufficiently convenient conditions for the emergence of life.
And thanks to the constant access to life here on Earth, we understand well what elements and conditions are needed for the emergence of this strange phenomenon. But the exact recipe for how carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, and sulfur are converted into the body is unknown.
Scientists are looking for new areas in the solar system where life could flourish (or else, for example, under the surface of watery moons), in the hope of developing a convincing theory of the origin of life.
Poincaré dodecahedral space. The supposed shape of the universe.
The source of energy, matter, the Universe itself and the greatest mystery is the Universe itself.
Based on widespread waves of cosmic radiation and other evidence, scientists believe that space was formed after the Big Bang - an inexplicable expansion of energy from a superdense and superhot source.
But a description of the time before this event may be impossible, because time did not exist before the Big Bang. Particle accelerators that collide atoms are trying to shed light on the formation of the universe. And make her a little less weird than she is today.