Mausoleum in Halicarnassus - one of the seven wonders of the world about which an interesting article will follow. So, let's begin. The modern tourist center of Turkey, the city of Bodrum in the middle of the third century BC was known as the city of Halicarnassus, the capital of Caria. In the period from 377 to 353 BC, King Mausolus of Halicarnassus ruled Caria.
During the reign of the province, Mavsol accumulated a huge amount of money, which he decided to use in a very interesting way. He decided to build a structure, a tomb for himself and his wife Artemis, who was also his sister. But Mavsol did not want to limit himself to a simple tomb, he wanted to build a great structure, thereby perpetuating himself for centuries. Investing a lot of money and a lot of effort into construction, Mavsol wanted people to remember his wealth and power in a thousand years.
But, unfortunately, Mavsol was not destined to see the construction finished, he died before the end of the main construction work. Then his wife Artemiz supervised the construction until the end of construction in 350 BC. After the tomb was ready, the remains of King Mavsol were transferred there and in his honor the building was named the Mausoleum. The word "Mausoleum" has become a household name, and since that time all buildings of this type (structures intended for the burial of noble persons) are called that way.
The building of the mausoleum had a simple, rectangular shape, at the base of which was a tomb room. On the dais, in this room, two golden urns were installed, in which the ashes of King Mavsol and Queen Artemis rested. The entrance to the tomb was guarded by two magnificent, gilded lions. The tomb was underground, when, as above, a Greek-style temple was built above it, with many columns and steps. The completion of the great mausoleum was a golden chariot drawn by five horses. The chariot was crowned with a large, stepped pyramid, which towered 43 meters. The chariot was "driven" by golden statues of the king and queen. Mavsol's desire was fulfilled, and for another long eighteen centuries the mausoleum reminded of his greatness, after which it was almost completely destroyed by a strong earthquake.
After the destruction, the mausoleum lay in ruins for several centuries, and only in 1489 its components were used as building material for the new castle of the knights of the Ionites order. It was possible to find out, since some fragments of the walls of the fortress were laid out of green stone, and this was the color of the walls of the mausoleum. During the construction, improvised excavations were also carried out, during which the tomb itself was found, in which the golden urns with the ashes of King Mavsol and Queen Artemiz were kept. However, the same night, the tomb was plundered by looters. Thus, another historical value of the ancient world was lost.
Full-scale archaeological excavations began here only three centuries later, during which the remains of a great structure that survived the earthquake and looters were discovered. Archaeologists also managed to find and restore almost completely the statue, which crowned all the weapons. All artifacts and relics found in the mausoleum area were taken to the British Museum in London, where a permanent exhibition dedicated to this topic was later opened. Recently, archaeological excavations have been resumed on the territory where the mausoleum was located, but, unfortunately, it is practically impossible to find something worthy after previous legal and illegal excavations. But even the little that can be found makes it possible to form an impression of the greatness of King Mavsol and his tomb.