The expiatory Temple Expiatori de la Sagrada Familia which is one of the most amazing and delightful creations of architecture, the Sagrada Familia fascinates with its gothic appearance the guests of Barcelona, and the hosts make them even more proud of history national culture. Tourists from all over the world dream of penetrating the incredible captivating magic of this structure, as well as learning the history of its non-simple birth.
The project of the temple belongs to the talented Spanish architect, endowed with a special taste, Antoni Gaudi, on which he worked and worked for more than 40 years. Gaudí devoted the last 15 years of his life to the realization of his idea. In accordance with the schedule, construction was to be completed only in 2026. To numerous questions about the unusually long length of construction work, Gaudi answered: "My client is in no hurry." After the death of Gaudí in 1926, work on the temple under the leadership of Dominic Sugranies continued until the Civil War of 1936, the beginning of which was interrupted by construction.
In the course of the war, the drawings of Gaudí and other masters and partly the unfinished temple itself were destroyed by the Catalan anarchists. The modern model of the cathedral was created both according to the restored documents and using modern technologies. Since 1940, the construction has been led by architects Francesc Quintana, Isidre Puig Boada, Lluis Bonet i Gari and Francesc Cardoner. In the 80s, on the initiative of the project manager Jordi Bonet i Armengol, son of Lewis Bonnet Gary, computer models were introduced to calculate the loads and structures of the cathedral. Today, Mark Bury from New Zealand is the chief architect and researcher of the project. The extraordinary façades of the temple are decorated with sculptures by J. Busquets, Etsuro Sotoo, and Josep Subirachs, although the involvement of the last author has been questioned.
According to the Spanish newspaper El Periodico de Catalunya, in 2004 the unfinished cathedral was visited by about 2.26 million people, which put it on a par with the most popular sought-after attractions in Spain. The construction of the central nave was completed in 2000, and since then the main task set before the architects and masters is the construction of the cross nave and the aspida. Since 2006, the focus has been on the auxiliary and connecting annexes for the head tower of Jesus Christ and on the construction of the façade symbolizing Glory, which will be located in the southern part of the central neth.
Not long ago, the Spanish Ministry of Public Works outlined the construction of a tunnel for high-speed trains, which will have to pass directly under the construction site of the central facade of the temple, which has given rise to a lot of controversy that this measure may pose a real threat of destruction of the Cathedral, which has not yet been moved to the end. Although the Ministry declares that the construction of the tunnel cannot bring any harm.
The goal set by Gaudí was the creation of the Sagrada Familia as “the last great shrine of Christianity, ” as a result of which the architectural elements of the temple are full of Christian symbolism. The deepest impression is made by the spindle-shaped spiers of the cathedral, the total number of which is 18, symbolizing (as the height increases) 12 Apostles, 4 Evangelists, the Blessed Virgin Mary and Jesus Christ. The towers of the Evangelists are adorned with sculptures in the form of their traditional symbols: bull (St. Luke), angel (St. Matthew), eagle (St. John) and lion (St. Mark). The central spire (of Jesus Christ) will be crowned with a giant cross, so the maximum height of the cathedral should be 170 m - just 1 m below the Montjuic mountain in Barcelona. Thus, according to Gaudí's original design, his creation does not surpass the creation of God. The smaller towers are adorned with sheaves of wheat and grapes, which symbolizes the Holy Communion.
In accordance with the original idea, the Cathedral will have three facades - the symbols of the Nativity (eastern), Glory (not yet finished) and the Passion of Christ (western). The façade of the Nativity was completed before the outbreak of the Civil War and was made according to the original design of Gaudí. The facade of the Passion of Christ is distinguished by figures and emaciated people, as well as sculptures depicting the crucifixion and scourging of Christ. The author of these sculptures is Josep Zubirax.
For the decoration of the Temple, the texts of the liturgy are widely used, including the words "Hosanna" ("Hosanna"), "Excelsis" ("the highest degree") and "Sanctus" ("saint"). The main gates of the facade of the Passion of Christ are adorned with quotations from the Bible in several languages, including Catalan. The façade of Slava will be marked with the words of the Apostolic Symbol of Faith.