10 fantastic predictions that came true, and brief information about their implementers ...
1. iPad: 1968
Many giggled when Apple announced the iPad. Someone talked about his excessive femininity. However, Arthur Clarke had the same vision as future developers when he came up with Newspad.
2001: A Space Odyssey, Arthur Clarke:
Tired of reading official reports, memoranda, and minutes, Floyd plugged his newspaper tablet into the ship's information network and scanned the world's largest electronic newspapers one by one. He remembered their code signals by heart, and he did not even need to look at the back of the tablet, where a list of them was printed.
Turning on the short-term storage device of the tablet, he held the image of the next page on the screen, quickly skimmed through the headlines and marked the articles that interested him. Each article had its own two-digit code number - as soon as you type it on the tablet keyboard, the tiny rectangle of the article instantly enlarged to the size of a screen the size of a sheet of writing paper, providing complete readability. After reading one article, Floyd would turn the entire page back on and select another.
The first tank appeared in 1916, but thirteen years earlier, Herbert Wells, possibly inspired by Leonardo da Vinci, described the battle scene in this way.
The Land of Battleships, H.G. Wells (in the only available translation it is called "Land Battleships" - approx. Trans.):
"Vit-vit-vit" - whistled over their heads; the artist rushed to seek refuge, the correspondent followed him. Shrapnel hit - very close, almost at arm's length; the men fell into some kind of recess and sank into the ground. Then the light and noise went away, and the hill remained in a dark, mysterious night.
The correspondent got up and barked a curse.
- What the hell is bringing down our soldiers?
- It's black - said the artist - and looks like a fort. Two hundred yards from our first line.
He looked for comparisons.
“Something like a big blockhouse or a giant, inverted bowl.
- And it was moving! The war correspondent exclaimed.
“You imagined it was moving — an illusion of spotlights, a creeping nightmare.
They crawled out to the edge of the recess and lay now in the immense darkness. For a while, absolutely nothing was visible, then the searchlight beams from both sides again converged on a strange object.
The pale light revealed what looked like a huge, clumsy insect — a beetle the size of an armored cruiser; it crawled straight into the first line of trenches and fired fire through the side cannon ports. Bullets drummed against his shell like a fierce hail on an iron roof.
3. Virtual Reality Games: 1956
The first video game appeared in 1958, and the same Arthur Clark describes virtual reality two years earlier.
City and Stars, Arthur Clarke:
Among the thousands of forms of entertainment that existed in the city, sagas were especially popular. Entering the saga did not make him a passive observer, as in the imperfect acts of the old days, which Alvin sometimes watched. He was an active participant with - or so it seemed - freedom of choice.
The events and scenes that served as the source material for the adventures could have been prepared by long-forgotten artists in advance, but they turned out to be flexible enough and allowed all sorts of changes.
One could go to these ghostly worlds in search of adventures absent in Diaspar with their friends. And while the dream lasted, it could not be distinguished from reality.
4. Atomic bomb: 1914
Although the term "atomic bomb" already existed by the time Wells wrote his novel "The World Unleashed", there is a serious possibility that he came down to it himself, and subsequently popularized it, describing the mechanism of action long before the actual appearance of the bomb.
Leo Szilard of the Manhattan Project: “It is remarkable that Wells wrote these lines in 1914. Writers 'predictions can sometimes be more accurate than scientists' predictions. "
5. Cubicles: 1909
While we admit that most workplaces are by no means hexagonal and do not have a built-in chair, the hive remains the hive in which we spend our days illuminated by fluorescent lights.
Car stops, Edward Forster:
Try to imagine an octagonal room that resembles a honeycomb cell. It has no lamps or windows, but it is flooded with a soft glow. There are no ventilation holes either, but the air is fresh and clean. And, although not a single musical instrument is visible, the minute I mentally introduce you here, gentle and melodic sounds pour towards us.
There is an armchair in the middle of the room, next to the nampupeter, that's all the furniture. In the armchair there is a shapeless, swaddled carcass - a woman no more than five feet tall, with a mildew-gray face. This is the owner of the room. The bell rings. The woman presses a button and the music stops. “There’s nothing to be done, we’ll have to see who’s there, ” the woman thinks and, pressing another button, sets the chair in motion. It slides to the opposite wall, from where the urgent bell is still ringing.
- Who is it? The woman shouts.
There is irritation in her voice ... for the umpteenth time she is prevented from listening to music. She has several thousand acquaintances - in a sense, communication between people has incredibly expanded. But when the answer is heard, her sallow face breaks into a wrinkled smile. - Okay. Let's talk, she agrees. - I'll turn off now. Hopefully nothing significant will happen in five minutes. I'll give you a full five minutes, Kuno, and then I have to give a lecture on music in the Australian period.
6. Earplugs: 1950
In 1950 Bradbury described headphones.
451 degrees Fahrenheit, Ray Bradbury:
In her ears are tightly inserted miniature "Shells", tiny, with a thimble, radio receivers-plugs, and the electronic ocean of sounds - music and voices, music and voices - washes the shores of her waking brain in waves. No, the room was empty. Every night an ocean of sounds burst in here and, taking Mildred on his wide wings, lulling and shaking, carried her away, lying with open eyes, towards the morning.
7. Video chat: 1911
AT&T at the 1964 World's Fair in New York, demonstrating its "picturephone". The first webcam showed a coffee pot at the University of Cambridge. Skype appeared in 2003.
Ralph 124C 41+, Hugo Gernsback:
Ralph walked over to the telephone mounted on the wall, pressed several buttons, and after a while the screen of the device lit up. A clean-shaven and rather attractive face of a man in his thirties appeared on it.
Recognizing Ralph on his phone, he greeted with a smile:
- Hi Ralph!
- Hello Edward. Come to my laboratory tomorrow morning. I'll show you something extremely interesting. Anyway, take a better look now!
Ralph stepped aside so that his friend could see the instrument on the table. This device was about ten feet from the telephoto screen.
8. Automatic doors: 1899
Depending on who you ask about the invention of automatic doors, you will be named either Heron of Alexandria (beginning of the era), or Dee Horton and Lew Hewitt, 1960
When the sleeper wakes up, H.G. Wells:
The two strangers obeyed and, with one last glance at Graham, turned to leave, but instead of going under the archway, they headed for the opposite wall. Then something strange happened: a part of the apparently completely blank wall parted with a crash and, curling like a blind, rose up and fell behind the departed. Graham was left alone with the newcomer and with a light-bearded man in a purple robe.
9. Escalators: 1940
Although this example is often cited, it is not entirely correct, since a patent for a similar escalator was filed in 1892, and a prototype was shown at the International Columbia Exhibition in 1893.
Roads Must Roll, Robert Heinlein:
They descended the electric staircase and onto the footpath that bounds the lane running north at five miles an hour. Having rounded the entrance to the tunnel with the sign "PASSAGE TO THE SOUTH ROAD", they stopped at the edge of the first lane.
- Did you have to ride a transporter? Gaines asked. - It's very simple. Step into the lane facing the traffic.
Moving from tape to tape, they began to make their way through the crowd of hurrying people. In the middle of a twenty-mile runway, they came across a transparent partition that almost reached the roof. Bleckinsop raised his eyebrows in question.
“These are windbreaks, ” Gaines answered the silent question and rolled the door aside, inviting his companion to go further. - If we didn’t have a way of dividing air streams at strips with different speeds, then on a hundred-mile strip, the wind would tear all your clothes off.
During the conversation, Gaines constantly had to bend over to Blackinsop to shout down the whistle of the wind, the noise of the crowd and the muffled rumble of cars hidden under the lane below. As we approached the middle of the road, the combination of these noises made conversation impossible.
They passed three more windbreaks, located in forty-, sixty- and eighty-mile lanes, and finally reached the fastest, hundred-mile lane, which ran from San Diego to Reno and back in twelve hours.
10. Submarines: 1869
Another fact similar to escalators is that Verne described his Nautilus, according to Rabkin, in fact based on data on a boat successfully used by the Confederation for military purposes five years before the novel was written.
But, even taking this into account, Verne still predicted what place such ships took in our world, how their political significance, as well as the psychological aspects of being on such a boat.
Twenty thousand leagues under the sea, Jules Verne:
The fact is that from some time on, many ships began to meet in the sea some kind of long, phosphorescent, spindle-shaped object that far surpassed the whale in both size and speed of movement. The entries made in the logbooks of different ships are surprisingly similar in describing the appearance of a mysterious creature or object, the unheard of speed and strength of its movements, as well as the features of its behavior.
If it was a cetacean, then, judging by the descriptions, it surpassed in size all representatives of this order hitherto known in science. Neither Cuvier, nor Laseped, nor Dumeril, nor Quatrefage would have believed in the existence of such a phenomenon without seeing it with their own eyes, or rather the eyes of scientists.
Disregarding the overly cautious estimates, according to which the notorious creature was no more than two hundred feet in length, rejecting the obvious exaggerations according to which it was drawn as some kind of giant - one mile wide, three miles long! - nevertheless, it was necessary to admit, adhering to the golden mean, that the outlandish beast, if only it exists, significantly exceeds the dimensions established by modern zoologists.