ABILITY TO BLOW WITH SHAME
Scientists consider one of the greatest gaps in evolutionary theory to be the lack of a clear explanation of why people blush when embarrassed or caught in a lie. Thus, sending an obvious signal to others: here I am in front of you - a liar, a scoundrel, a deceiver. But why?
There is only a vague assumption. They say that by sending paint to their faces, nature makes people lie less. And the flushed liar sends a signal to the group of people around him that he is ready to apologize. This reduces the level of aggressiveness and makes other people more likely to forgive the offender.
Perhaps the ability to blush helped people at the dawn of evolution to reduce aggression in society. Who knows, suddenly it helps now?
It is still not clear what exactly makes a person have fun. After all, everyone has a completely different sense of humor. The assumption of scientists: laughter is needed to balance mental processes. For example, in order to extinguish excitement, tension and grief. After all, laughter gives rise to a real "biochemical storm" - it produces natural intoxicating substances - endorphins, antidepressants ... No wonder the British have a proverb: "Teach me to laugh - save my soul."
THIRST TO CREATE ART
A person simply cannot help but create beautiful things. It pleases the eye. But, as a rule, it is devoid of any utilitarian purpose. And why is it needed?
The assumption of scientists: beauty, albeit indirectly, still helps a person to create better quality utilitarian objects. For example, people perceive a comfortable living environment as aesthetically attractive. And uncomfortable - as ugly. By creating objects of art, a person trains his brain, which in this process improves to solve purely applied problems. Or perhaps Leo Tolstoy was right when he wrote: "... in a word, one person conveys his thoughts to another, but through art, people convey their feelings to each other."
There is no rational sense in superstition. But they themselves are. Paradox?
The assumption of scientists: the vitality of signs is based on remembering successes and forgetting troubles. We become especially superstitious when we are in trouble. Gloomy thoughts make us less in control of our actions and make new mistakes. And then we blame everything on the black cat. If a person bypasses the cat, then he gives himself the installation that everything will be fine. This is a kind of placebo.
This unique human function - to live for others - is embedded in the brain. As early as 18 months, babies begin to exhibit altruistic behavior. What speaks about the innate friendliness of a person. But what makes people help even non-relatives and without benefit for themselves?
The assumption of scientists: altruism is necessary when choosing a partner. In both men and women. Selflessness towards others makes a person more attractive to the opposite sex.
The development of the human brain made parenting a very difficult process, so it was important for our ancestors to choose a partner who could become a kind and devoted parent. Selflessness best indicates this ability, so genes associated with altruism may have persisted through evolutionary selection.
A seemingly harmful activity - tiny hairs are pulled out of the nostrils, which help filter out dust and dirt from the air we breathe. But everyone is picking their noses, who are secretly, who are in public. From children to adults.
The assumption of scientists: the meaning, perhaps, is hidden not in the process itself, but in its consequence. After all, many also eat their boogers. Disgusting? Not at all. Some researchers quite seriously believe that this is a good way to strengthen the body's immune system. Along with kisses. And at the dawn of evolution, again, he could remain the only one at all. When there was no one to kiss. After all, the nose filters out a large number of all kinds of bacteria. Once in the stomach, this "mixture" works like a universal vaccine against many diseases. Just do not abuse it.
In addition, American physiologists claim that finger massage of the nasal mucosa, which is stuffed with different receptors, improves brain activity.
How and why the tradition of kissing arose, why it got a sexual connotation, no one knows for sure. Although there are plenty of hypotheses. But which is the most reasonable?
The assumption of scientists: perhaps a kiss - in its original basis - is a kind of vaccination method invented by nature. After all, saliva contains various bacteria. 80% of them are the same in all people, and 20% are individual. When kissing, these bacteria are passed from person to person. In the mouth, they invigorate other microorganisms, giving a boost to the immune system and triggering the process of antibody formation.
LONG ADOLESCENT PERIOD
Even our closest relatives, the great apes, do not have such a long transition from adolescence to adulthood. Puberty occurs in chimpanzees at about 5 years of age, when their childhood ends. In humans, the so-called pubertal period lasts from 11 to 20 years. Why?
The assumption of scientists: adolescence is a late historical acquisition of mankind. The length of puberty depends on the level of development of society. The higher it is, the wider the band between the end of puberty and the onset of final maturity.
Once upon a time our distant ancestors had a firm conviction: during sleep, the soul of a person temporarily leaves his body in order to wander around the world. And we dream about what she sees in her travels. Later, Sigmund Freud argued that dreams are a reflection of our unconscious desire. But today most researchers reject this. But then why are they needed at all?
Scientists hypothesize that dreams appear in our brains as a result of erratic electrical activity. Almost every 90 minutes, the brain stem sends out electrical impulses randomly throughout the brain. The forebrain, which is responsible for analytic activity, is desperate to make sense of these signals. And the only way to organize them is to dream. They don't carry any message. But they are not completely pointless either. The way our forebrain selects certain moments from a continuous stream of pictures can reveal our essence. In addition, dreams are likely to facilitate the transfer of information received during the day from short-term to long-term memory.