The Black Sea ranks first in popularity among Russian tourists. In the old days it was called so - "Russian sea". However, such a well-known and dear, it still conceals a lot of mysteries.
Why the Black Sea is "black"
Science knows more than twenty names of the Black Sea. When the Black Sea was still poorly developed, the ancient Greeks called it Pontus Aksinsky, which translates as "inhospitable sea". As the reservoir was developed, the name also changed. Now the same Greeks called him Pontus Evsinsky, which meant "hospitable sea".
Today the sea is called "black". Why? Science cannot give an unequivocal answer to this question.
According to one version, this name came from the color designation of the parts of the world, where the North was marked in black, and the Black Sea was considered exactly the northern sea. According to another version, the Black Sea became so called due to the fact that any metal objects lowered to its depth become black due to the hydrogen sulfide contained in the water. Finally, according to another version, the Black Sea began to be called so because of the difficulties of navigation. Within the framework of this nominative theory, "black" has become synonymous with the words "mysterious", "unknown"
"Sea of the Dead Depths"
Another name for the Black Sea sounds very ominous - "the sea of the dead depths." Indeed, the waters of the Black Sea have unusual characteristics. The depths of the Black Sea are divided into two levels. Deeper than 150-200 meters, there is practically no life here due to the high percentage of hydrogen sulfide contained in the deep layers of water.
Over the years of its existence, the Black Sea has accumulated more than a billion tons of this substance, which is a product of the vital activity of bacteria.
According to one of the versions, the very appearance of the Black Sea (7500 years ago) was associated with the mass death of freshwater inhabitants of the Black Sea lake that was once here. From this, reserves of hydrogen sulfide and methane began to accumulate at its bottom. However, scientists do not yet have a consensus on the origin of the huge volume of hydrogen sulfide in the waters of the Black Sea. The approximate amount of hydrogen sulfide in the Black Sea is 3.1 billion tons.
Research in recent years also makes it possible to speak of the Black Sea as a giant reservoir of not only hydrogen sulfide, but also methane. It is the detonation of methane due to the movements of lithospheric plates that today explains the strange phenomenon that occurred during the earthquake of September 11, 1927.
The well-known explorer of Crimea, professor-geologist S.P. Popov described this phenomenon as follows: "... during the earthquake, observers of three lighthouses on the western coast of the Black Sea noticed a giant fire strip 55 kilometers from the coast for a long distance between Sevastopol and Cape Lucullus." Subsequent polls made it possible to establish that the fire was not isolated - three explosions were noticed by observers.
Black sea flood
Around 5600 BC The Black Sea was in much more modest borders than it is now. According to the theory of American geologists Ryman and Pitman, the Black Sea was previously a freshwater lake, but then, due to earthquakes, the previously closed Mediterranean Sea merged with the Black Sea, which began to quickly fill with salty sea water.
Then the level of the Black Sea rose by 140 meters - at the same time the Sea of Azov arose, and instead of the modern Bosphorus, an endless gigantic waterfall poured, 200 times larger than Niagara in terms of the volume of water passed through.
The rapid increase in the volume of the Black Sea by 1.5 times led to the immediate flooding of a huge coastal zone.
There is a version that it was this event that served as the basis for the myth of the worldwide flood prevailing in many cultures. Some historians also associate Plato's account of Atlantis with the flooding of the Black Sea. In any case, the Black Sea flood caused a full-scale resettlement of peoples.
Having explored the shores of the Black Sea in 2000, carrying out radiocarbon analysis of mollusks and changes in sedimentary rocks in the reservoir, the famous marinologist Ballard came to the conclusion that 7500 thousand years ago the Black Sea was absolutely fresh, which indirectly confirms the theory of the expansion of the Black Sea as a Flood ...
Black Sea Gold
According to recent studies, the waters of the Black Sea are rich not only in hydrogen sulfide, but also in precious metals such as gold and silver. According to Gennady Bugrin's calculations, the weight of the silver in the Black Sea water is 540 thousand tons, the weight of gold is 270 tons.
Developments for the extraction of precious metals from sea water have been going on for a long time. The simplest installations for such production are based on ion exchangers - ion-exchange resin capable of attracting ions of substances dissolved in water. Such technologies are used today by Turkey, Bulgaria and Romania.
The Black Sea is relatively young, therefore it is still growing, and the geological processes occurring at its bottom and along its shores (lithospheric shifts and the growth of coastal mountains) can speak of it as an emerging ocean. According to scientists, in just one century, the shores of the Black Sea expand by 20-25 centimeters. This may seem insignificant if you do not know that the Black Sea already stores the ancient cities of Taman in its depths.